Vocabulary Adapted from http://reading.uoregon.edu/voc/index.php, Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement
Facts About Vocabulary Children from different social classes enter school with "meaningful differences" in vocabulary knowledge. [Hart, B., & Risley, R. T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.] For example
Differences in the Numberof Words Children Hear In a typical hour, the average child would hear: • Professional: 2,153 words • Working Class: 1,251 words • Welfare: 616 words
Differences in the Varietyof Words Children Hear, and Therefore Learn. By the time the children were 3 years old, parents in less economically favored circumstances had said fewer different wordsin their cumulative monthly vocabularies than the children in the most economically advantaged families in the same period of time (Hart & Risley, 1995).
Differences in the Uses and the Qualityof Words Children Hear and Therefore Learn. • Professional: 32 affirmations, 5 prohibitions • Working Class: 12 affirmations, 7 prohibitions • Welfare: 5 affirmations, 11 prohibitions (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Differences in the Uses and the Qualityof Words Children Hear and Therefore Learn. • The majority of communications in families of disadvantaged children are linguistically simple and are designed to stop behavior. • These differences in the number, variety, and quality of vocabulary heard by children have long-term effects. For example
Differences in the Sizeof Children’s Vocabulary • Children from professional families: 1100 words • Children from working class families: 700 words • Children from welfare families: 500 words
Differences in the Developmentof Children’s Vocabulary Children who enter with limited vocabulary knowledge grow much more discrepant over time from their peers who have rich vocabulary knowledge.[Baker, Simmons, & Kame'enui. (1997). Vocabulary acquisition: Research bases. In Simmons, D. C. & Kame'enui, E. J. (Eds.), What reading research tells us about children with diverse learning needs: Bases and basics. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.] For example
The Number of WordsStudents Learn (The Growth in Vocabulary) Varies Greatly. Disadvantaged vs. advantaged children: • 2 vs. 8 words per day • 750 vs. 3,000 per year • Between grades 1 and 3, it is estimated that economically disadvantaged students' vocabularies increase by about 3,000 words per year and middle-class students' vocabularies increase by about 5,000 words per year. Okay. That’s enough chit chat. Let’s do something about it!
Five Ways to Teach Vocabulary, or What Words Mean A. Teach Directly by: • Giving examples and nonexamples. “This line is curved.” “This line is NOT curved.” 2. Giving synonyms. “Masticate means chew.” 3. Giving definitions.“Monarchy is government led by one person.”
Five Ways to Teach Vocabulary, or What Words Mean B. Teach Indirectly by: 4. Using context to suggest meaning of a new word.“The fan oscillated from side to side. The fan MOVED from side to side. So oscillate probably means to…” 5. Morphemic (word part) analysis.“Inspire. In means to put something inside. Spir means spirit. So, to inspire means to….” Let’s start with teaching vocabulary directly.
Direct Teaching of Vocabulary "Because children with weaker vocabularies are less likely to learn new words from listening to stories than children with larger vocabularies, teachers need to provide more direct instruction for children with smaller vocabularies" (Robbins & Ehri, 1994). • In other words, directly teach the meaning of many words with ** Examples. “These (4 examples/pictures) are pine needles.” ** Definitions.“A galaxy is a massive group of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity. Here are examples of galaxies (pictures).” ** Synonyms:“Distribute means to spread around. For example, I will distribute the cookies. I will spread around the cookies to kids in the group.”
Direct Teaching of Vocabulary • 300-400 new word meanings can be taught per year through direct instruction. • This is a significant proportion of the words that students who are at risk will learn. Direct teaching using examples
Teaching Vocabulary Directly by Examples (Modeling) Use examples when it’s impossible to use language to explain the meaning of a word, because the concept is abstract or is not an object (e.g., between, in). Here’s how
Teaching Vocabulary Directly by Examples (Modeling) 1. Show a range of examples (e.g., red) that differ in ways that are NOT relevant (e.g., shape and size) but are the SAME in the defining feature (e.g., redness). 2. Then put examples and NONexamples next to each other so that kids can compare and contrast. Make sure that the examples and nonexamples are the SAME in many ways (size, shape) but are DIFFERENT in the defining feature (e.g., color). Here’s how
Teaching Vocabulary Directly by Examples (Modeling) To help kids to see the defining feature (the meaning) of the concept, contrast examples and NONexamples that are the SAME except for the defining features. “This is red.” ‘This is NOT red.” Here are more examples
Teaching Vocabulary Directly by Examples (Modeling) This is a cylinder This is a cylinder This is a cylinder. This is not a cylinder
Teaching Vocabulary Directly by Examples (Modeling) 3. Then test to see if students got the essential (defining) feature by having them respond to examples and nonexamples. The table shows the three things to do. Examples Nonexamples Test More examples
Teaching Vocabulary Directly by Examples (Modeling) Now let’s use direct teaching with synonyms
Teaching Vocabulary Directly with Synonyms Teach with synonyms when a student knows another word(s) that can explain the meaning of a new, unknown word (e.g., damp means a little wet). 1. Teacher equates a new word (sturdy) with a known word or words (strong).“Here is a new word. Sturdy. Sturdy means strong.“ And, “Another word for jest is joke.” 2. Then teach synonyms and antonyms.“Ex at the start of a word means out. INspire is to put spirit in. What does expire mean? 3. Then test whether students “get” the meaning with examples and nonexamples “Huge means very big. What does huge mean?” ….. “Tom put his pet in his pocket. Was his pet huge?”
Teaching Vocabulary Directly with Synonyms 4. Then teacher provides practice using several recently taught synonyms. "Is that sturdy?”“Is this one huge?” • Then students practice by replacing in a sentence the synonym with the new word. “Listen. The dog was very big (synonym). Say that sentence with our NEW word.” The dog was huge. “Yes, the dog was HUGE.” Now let’s use direct teaching with definitions
Teaching Vocabulary Directly with Definitions Use definitions when students have adequate language to understand a longer explanation but when the concept is too complicated to be explained through a synonym (e.g., service station is a place where gasoline is sold and cars are repaired = too complicated). 1.Teacher tells the students the definition and has them repeat it."An exit is a door that leads out of a building. What is an exit?“ “Trench. A trench is a dug-out part of the ground. What is a trench?”
Teaching Vocabulary Directly with Definitions 2. Next, the teacher shows examples. “Here are trenches. See how they are dug out of the ground”
Teaching Vocabulary Directly with Definitions 3.Then teacher tests the students using examples and nonexamples to ensure that students understand the definition and that they are not just memorizing a series of words. "Is this an exit or not an exit? Yes. How do you know?“ [Student uses definition to explain. “Because it’s a door that goes out of a building.”] “Is this an exit or not an exit? No. How do you know?” Now let’s look at Indirect teaching of vocabulary
Indirect Teaching of Vocabulary The two methods for teaching vocabulary indirectly are for older children. • Contextual analysis… Look at context for clues to meaning.“The mountain trembled and the rocks tumbled down. What does a mountain do when it trembles, that could make rocks tumble down?” • and morphemic analysis Look at word parts and their meanings. “The tires finally got traction in the snow. Tractor. A tractor digs into the ground and pulls. Attraction. When things attract, they pull together. Distraction. When things distract, they pull apart. What does tract mean?” Let’s put it all together into storybook lessons.
When to Teach Vocabulary You can teach new (and review older) vocabulary words: • Before you begineach dailylesson in a program, such as 100 Easy Lessons. These words might be from kids’ school textbooks or maybe they are just important words generally. “Here are two NEW words for today. Budget and congress.” • Before and during storybook reading. “We have three new magic words today---complete, disarray, and converge.”
Teaching vocabulary using storybooks Features of Storybook Instruction • Repeat readings of story chunks (e.g., a paragraph)---alternating teacher, children, teacher, children. By reading first, the teacher shows HOW to read---especially new words to sound out and new vocabulary words to teach. By reading the same paragraph several times, kids get to practice and firm up sounding out hard words, using new vocabulary words, and reading faster (fluency).
Teaching Vocabulary Using Storybooks Features of Storybook Instruction • Start with an introduction---title, cover pictures, predict what story is about. • Make sure there are few interruptions during reading. • Discuss story after reading.
Teaching vocabulary using storybooks Features of Storybook Instruction • 3 target words per story. • How to Select Words to Pre-teach. **Identify words that are critical to understanding the story that are not explained in the text. **Select words students will "encounter" again (moderate frequency words)
Teaching Vocabulary Using Storybooks Features of Storybook Instruction • Remember: Teach meaning by: ** Examples.** Synonyms. ** Definitions** Context clues. ** Morphemic analysis
Teaching Vocabulary Using Storybooks Features of Storybook Instruction • Encourage "deep" processing; e.g., ** Use words (traction) to make distinctions. “Which surface gives more traction? An icy road or a dry road?” ** Have the student make up sentences with the new words. “This eraser has traction on the paper.”
Storybook LessonsNote that there are at least three lessons on the same story. How do the lessons change?
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 1 • Story Introduction (3 - 4 minutes) ** Title, author, illustrator ** Rationale for reading: “We will learn about…” ** Cover presentation, prediction of what story is about ** Focus on story elements (character, setting, etc.) ** Introduce 3 target vocabulary words
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 1 • Reading (4 - 6 minutes) ** Few interruptions; pause for target vocabulary words ** Post-Reading Discussion Questions (3 - 5 minutes) ** Relate to student experiences “Now try your best to remember what happens in the story. I will help you by asking questions and showing pictures. Be sure to tell me the names of the characters, where the story takes place, and the problems the characters have. Tell me the story as if you were telling it to a friend who has never heard it.”
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 2. [Same book] • Story Introduction (3 - 4 minutes) ** Title, author, illustrator ** Ask recall questions emphasizing story elements: characters, actions. “Who….?” “What did _________ do next?” ** Review 3 target vocabulary words by showing words in context—how they fit into the story.
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 2 • Reading (4 - 6 minutes) **Pause to teach NEW target vocabulary words. rumpus, terrible, mischief. Relate definition to children’s experience. “Have you ever had a RUMPUS?”
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 2 **Prompted Retell “Now try your best to remember what happens in the story. I will help you by asking questions and showing pictures. Be sure to tell me the names of the characters, where the story takes place, and the problems the characters have. Tell me the story as if you were telling it to a friend who has never heard it.”
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 2 **Guess the Word Game “You are going to tell me which word goes with another word. If you get it right, I will give the group a star. “ “Which words go with terrible? Very bad or very nice?” “Which words go with rumpus? Playing dolls or wild play?” “Which words go with mischief? Naughty things or helpful things?”
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 2 ** Target Words (terrible, rumpus, mischief) in Context A. Page with Max chasing the dog. “Mischief is doing naughty things.” “What is mischief?” (doing naughty things) “One night Max wore his wolf suit and made mischief of one kind and another; he did many naughty things.”
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 2 ** Target Words (terrible, rumpus, mischief) in Context B. Page with Max landing at the place where the wild things are. “Terrible means very bad.” “What is terrible?” (very bad) “They roared their terrible roars, their very bad roars.”
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 2 • “Remember we had 3 magic words that you listened for in the story. Point to the words on the tagboard [board with words on 3 x 5 cards tacked up] as you repeat them quickly: mischief, terrible, rumpus.” a. “The first magic word was mischief. Show the picture where Max is chasing the dog. In the picture Max is making____________.” (mischief)
Storybook Lessons Storybook Reading Lesson 2 b. “The next magic word was terrible. Show the picture with Max landing at the place where the wild things are. The wild things had eyes that were___________.” (terrible) c. “The third magic word was rumpus. Show the picture where the wild things are howling at the moon. Max led the wild things in a _________________” (rumpus)