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ASIS Workshop ‘99. Overview What is holding ASIS back? Toolkit and Extensions Layers Guidelines Integrating tools Demonstration Brainstorming Data Decomposition Annex Tool Launchers Future Directions Promoting ASIS New Tools Other. Expanding ASIS Steve Blake Aonix.

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asis workshop 99
ASIS Workshop ‘99
  • Overview
  • What is holding ASIS back?
  • Toolkit and Extensions Layers
  • Guidelines
  • Integrating tools
    • Demonstration
  • Brainstorming
    • Data Decomposition Annex
    • Tool Launchers
    • Future Directions
    • Promoting ASIS
    • New Tools
  • Other
expanding asis steve blake aonix
Expanding ASISSteve BlakeAonix

An Interface to the Ada 95 Compilation Environment

  • What is ASIS?
  • The ASIS Toolkit
  • The ASIS Extensions
  • Guidelines
  • Functionality
  • Components for Integrated Tools
  • Integrated Suite Demonstration
what is asis

Ada Environment


















ASIS Interface





Static Analysis Tools

What is ASIS?






syntactic information


Object Declaration







List of Identifiers

Subtype Indication

Initial Expression

Syntactic Information

Ada syntax is summarized in Ada 95 RM, Annex P as variant of Backus-Naur Form

For example:

object_declaration ::==

defining_identifier_list : [aliased] [constant]subtype_indication [:= expression]; | ...

For the Ada object declaration => A,B: Latitude := 0.0;

Syntactic Element

Tree Representation =>

ASIS can extract desired syntactic information for every syntactic category

Of the 367 ASIS Queries, most support syntactic tree analysis

semantic information


Object Declaration







List of Identifiers

Subtype Indication

Initial Expression

Semantic Information

Full Type


Ada semantics are provided via

mechanisms such as Corresponding_:










Type Definition

Real Type Definition

Floating Point Definition







Static Expression

Real Range





Corresponding_ Name_Declaration

Static Simple Expressions


A := A + B;

These mechanisms allow ASIS to traverse the syntactic

tree like Hypertext allows one to traverse a document

examples of tools built on asis
Examples of Tools Built on ASIS

Tools portable to Ada

environments supporting

ASIS Interface

Code Restructuring Tools

Code Browsing and Navigation Tools

Coding Style and Standards

Compliance Tools

Cross Reference Tools

Data Flow Analysis Tools

Dependency Tree Analysis Tools

Design Tools

Document Generation Tools

Invocation (Call) Tree Analysis Tools

Language-sensitive Editing and

Prettyprinting Tools

Language Translation Tools

Quality Assessment Tools

Reverse Engineering Tools

Re-Engineering Tools

Safety & Security Compliance Tools

Static Correctness Verifiers

Tasking Analysis Tools

Test-case Generation &

Coverage Analysis Tools

Usage, Quality, & Complexity Metrics Tools

ASIS Interface

Ada Environment

what is holding asis back
What is Holding ASIS Back?
  • ASIS has a steep learning curve
    • Large interface with few examples
  • ASIS is primitive
    • It takes a lot of queries to make a tool
  • ASIS only covers static semantics
    • Does not address dynamic program attributes
  • ASIS is not complete
    • There are “holes” in the standard
what is the solution
What is the Solution?
  • Expand ASIS in 2 directions
    • Toolkit query layer
      • Serve as examples to reduce the learning curve
      • Higher level abstractions do more with less
      • Portable and interchangable with different vendors
    • Extension layer
      • Can address dynamic semantics
      • Fills holes and gaps
      • Not as portable as the Tookit layer
the asis toolkit
The ASIS Toolkit

Higher level, abstract, secondary queries built from ASIS primitives and other portable services

ASIS.Toolkit Layer

ASIS Interface

Ada Environment

the asis extensions
The ASIS Extensions

Higher level, abstract, secondary queries built from implementation, host, or target dependent services. Can use Toolkit layer.

ASIS.Extensions Layer

ASIS.Toolkit Layer

ASIS Interface

Ada Environment

Host or Target

guidelines make it possible
Guidelines Make it Possible
  • They allow vendors to independently build Toolkit and Extensions to ASIS that will:
    • Promote portability for tools using the interfaces
    • Organize additions along clear paths
    • Expand easily while avoiding name collisions
    • Enhance understandability and usability
    • Mix and match with toolkits from other vendors
    • Provide the foundation for integrated tool sets
guidelines make it possible1
Guidelines Make it Possible
  • Add ONLYTWO new child packages to ASIS
    • Asis.Toolkit
    • Asis.Extensions
  • Vendors identify themselves as children and then add unlimited descendents
    • Asis.Extensions.GNAT
    • Asis.Toolkit.ObjectAda.Call Trees
    • Asis.Toolkit.Apex.Expressions
guidelines make it possible2
Guidelines Make it Possible
  • Toolkit queries are implemented with ASIS primitives, other Toolkit queries, or common portable services and data structures.
  • Extensions interfaces can make use of vendor specific, host or target dependent and other non-portable services. Can use Toolkit queries.
toolkit functionality is limitless
Toolkit Functionality is Limitless
  • Initialize and Finalize the environment and context
  • Select compilation units (using filters, wild carding)
  • Classify elements (Is_Package, Is_Task, Is_Global, …)
  • Classify types (cut through derivations and privates)
  • Object Oriented queries (Controlling_Parameter, Corr_Tagged_Type)
  • Provide Lists, Trees, Sorting and other utilities
  • Offer generic report templates
  • Build iterative structures like Call Trees, Dependency Graphs
  • Perform Source Transformations
extension functionality
Extension Functionality
  • Type and object sizes and alignments
  • Record layout information: component positions, first_bit, width
  • Array ranges and component sizes
  • Subprogram frame sizes and stack offsets of local objects
  • Addresses of subprograms, tasks, data within a target specific partition or program
  • Filename, directory, or other host dependent functions
an integrated tool suite
An Integrated Tool Suite
  • Toolkit and Extensions queries provide the building blocks for individual tools
  • Asis.Extensions.ObjectAda.HTML is a simple interface that can glue individual tool output into an easily navigated set of reports

package Asis.Extensions.ObjectAda.HTML is


-- Operations to form HTML anchors and links.


function Anchor (Declaration : in Asis.Declaration) return String;


-- Returns an HTML anchor created for the Declaration.



function Link (URL : in String; Anchor : in String; Image : in String)

return String;

-- Returns an HTML link created from the Image to its URL and Anchor.



function Link (Anchor : in Asis.Declaration; Image : in String)

return String;


-- Returns an HTML link created from the Image to the Anchor.



function Link (Expression : in Asis.Expression) return String;


-- Returns an HTML link created from the Expression to its

-- declaration.



end Asis.Extensions.ObjectAda.HTML;

tool suite source navigator
Tool Suite: Source Navigator
  • Transforms the original source into a browsable file with links connecting semantically related elements.
    • Names linked to declarations
    • Declarations linked to completions
    • Bodies linked to corresponding declarations
tool suite profiler
Tool Suite: Profiler
  • Creates compilable copy of the source and inserts a unique controlled object declaration in callable entities
  • The controlled object’s Adjust and Finalize procedures are invoked whenever a callee’s scope is entered and exited.
  • The callee’s count and timing information is collected and saved at runtime.
  • A report tool constructs the profile report with links to the Navigator sources.
tool suite call tree report
Tool Suite: Call Tree Report
  • Uses the Toolkit Call_Trees package to build a call tree of a main program
  • Walks the Call_Tree using the generic traverse routine and generates the output report.
  • The tool constructs the call tree report with local anchors and links to the Navigator sources.
integrated tool output with navigation links
Integrated Tool Output with Navigation Links

Call Tree Report


| entry T1.Go at line 45

| entry T2.Go at line 46

| procedure Proc1 at line 48

| | function "+" at line 30

| | function "<" at line 31

| | procedure Proc1 at line 32 * RECURSIVE * * REPEAT *

| procedure Main180 at line 49

| | entry Calc.Go at line 22

| | entry Thread_1.finish at line 24

| | procedure Put at line 25

| | procedure Put at line 26 * REPEAT *

| | function Positive at line 26

| | procedure New_Line at line 26

| | entry Thread_2.finish at line 28

| | procedure Put at line 29 * REPEAT *

| | procedure Put at line 30 * REPEAT *

| | function Positive at line 30

| | procedure New_Line at line 30 * REPEAT *

| | entry Thread_3.finish at line 32

| | procedure Put at line 33 * REPEAT *

| | procedure Put at line 34 * REPEAT *

| | procedure Put at line 34 * REPEAT *

| | procedure New_Line at line 34 * REPEAT *

| procedure Proc1 at line 50 * REPEAT *

| procedure Proc2 at line 51

| | procedure Proc1 at line 38 * REPEAT *

Profiler Report

Elapsed time: 30.7045 seconds.

ACCEPT Pack_is_a_prime.Task_is_prime.start Id 11

30 calls using 10.2778 seconds (% 33.4733)

TASK Main180.Calc Id 5

30 calls using 9.9629 seconds (% 32.4476)

TASK Pack_is_a_prime.Task_is_prime Id 10

30 calls using 9.9523 seconds (% 32.4132)

PROC Main180 Id 6

30 calls using 0.3799 seconds (% 1.2372)

TASK Testprofiler.Do_Main Id 7

2 calls using 0.0526 seconds (% 0.1711)

procedure Main180 IS

Thread_1 : Task_factorial;

Thread_2 : Task_factorial;

Thread_3 : Task_is_prime;

Factorial: Positive;

Prime : Boolean;

task Calc is

entry Go;

end Calc;

task body Calc is separate;



Thread_1.Finish( factorial ); -- Obtain result

with main180;

with Ada.Text_IO;

procedure Testprofiler is

I : Integer;

task type Do_Main is

entry Go;

end Do_Main;

task body Do_Main is separate;

T1, T2: Do_Main;


task body Calc is


accept GO;

Thread_1.Start(5); -- Start factorial calculation

Thread_2.Start(7); -- Start factorial calculation

delay 1.0; --### DEBUG

Thread_3.Start(97); -- Start is_prime calculation

end Calc;


procedure Main180 IS

how to get asis artifacts including toolkit interfaces
How to Get ASIS Artifacts(including Toolkit interfaces)

ASIS Home Page =>

Also mirrored on sw-eng host for ftp on Internet =>

ASIS 95 specification is complete and ready for use:

(Microsoft Word, postscript, ASCII, & HTML)

ASIS is now available as ISO/IEC International Standard

ISO/IEC 15291:1999 Information technology — Programming

languages — Ada Semantic Interface Specification (ASIS)

Also available are tutorials, papers, examples, bibliography