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Workshop Agenda. 10:00 Discussion of Issues 11:00 Toward an understanding of plagiarism 11:45 Strategic Application 12:00 Lunch 1:00 Goal- and support-based design model 1:45 Strategic application 2:15 Break 2:30 Assignment workshop 3:30 Discussion and resources 4:00 Adjourn.

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Workshop Agenda


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    1. Workshop Agenda 10:00 Discussion of Issues 11:00 Toward an understanding of plagiarism 11:45 Strategic Application 12:00 Lunch 1:00 Goal- and support-based design model 1:45 Strategic application 2:15 Break 2:30 Assignment workshop 3:30 Discussion and resources 4:00 Adjourn

    2. Your Turn . . . • Please read all the vignettes. • Now focus on the vignette assigned to your group. • Discuss the vignette with your group, exploring its implications and trying to decide on a particular course of action, if any. • Be ready to share the results of your discussion with the larger group.

    3. So, What’s Plagiarism?

    4. Consider . . . Myth: The rubber soles of shoes or rubber tires on a car will protect you from being struck by lightning. Fact: Rubber-soled shoes and rubber tires provide NO protection from lightning. However, the steel frame of a hard-topped vehicle provides increased protection if you are not touching metal. Although you may be injured if lightning strikes your car, you are much safer inside the vehicle than outside.

    5. This appears verbatim at: • Safeco.com • City of Fort Collins, CO • University of Victoria Elementary Education Program • National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration • Denton County TX • FEMA.GOV kids site • Times Record News (a Scripps newspaper), Wichita Falls • Lightning Protection Service & Installation, Inc., Berlin, NJ • National Weather Service Forecast Office, Jackson, MS

    6. And also at: • Emergency Management Service, Portage, WI • WeatherBug.com (sponsored by Cool Savings, Inc.) • Goddard Flight Center (NASA) • Steuben County Gov., Bath, NY • Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council • Emergency Management Service, Tuscaloosa, AL • Factmonster.com • Kidzworld.com • Florida Family Insurance Co., Inc.

    7. And also at: • weatherandkids.com • bikeleague.org • Emergency Management, Springfield, MO • United Electric, Inc. • cybercom.net • vaudevilleproductions.com • easyweb.easynet.co.uk • Chiltern District County, Buckinghamshire, England • And dozens of others . . . .

    8. Why? • Producers of text in civic contexts--for the public good--do not have profit motives or proprietary interests • The more the texts circulate, the better • Specific uses of texts make attribution unnecessary or undesirable

    9. Consider . . . “Experience six brightly colored ‘island villages’ with the ambiance of the tropics. Each village has its own heated quiet pool plus a white-sand beach on the shores of a shimmering lake.” (from official Disney site) Dozens of booking agents provide this text verbatim with no attribution.

    10. Why? • Brokers don’t want to risk creating their own (mis)representations of properties • But they want to develop “trust” with clients: not “their language” but “ours” • No one cares that the text is not attributed; everyone “wins”

    11. Plagiarism? • The concept of plagiarism varies in different contexts and “textual cultures.” • The textual culture of public service operates with less proprietary interest than either business or academia. • The textual culture of business operates with selective proprietary interest, based on its goals.

    12. Textual Culture in Academia: Research • Highly individualistic and person-centered • Based on credit cycles of individual production, invention, and publication • Privileges the ownership and attribution of ideas, concepts, and words to express them

    13. Textual Culture in Academia: Teaching • Focused on individual growth • Preoccupied with evaluation of individual achievement • Recognizes and rewards “original” thinking and innovation by novices • Tends to perpetuate (and teach) assumptions about authorship from its own context

    14. Values in Our Context: Teaching • We care that students are developing (through their own effort). • We want to know we are evaluating their learning authentically. • Secondarily, we want students to learn to do things the way we do. • Secondarily, we want to emphasize ethical behavior and prepare students for social and occupational challenges.

    15. Values in Our Context • We care that students are developing (through their own effort). • We want to know we are evaluating their learning authentically. Fear of plagiarism? Or opportunity to make this happen?

    16. Orientation of our Work Turning in someone else’s work Pasting in un- attributed text as if own Incorrect citation practices Intentional and knowing? Due process Yes Intervention Possible sanctions/ remediation No

    17. Orientation of our Work Turning in someone else’s work Pasting in un- attributed text as if own Incorrect citation practices Intentional and knowing? Due process Yes Intervention Possible sanctions/ remediation No

    18. Orientation of our Work Turning in someone else’s work Pasting in un- attributed text as if own Incorrect citation practices Intentional and knowing? Due process Yes Intervention Possible sanctions/ remediation No

    19. Why Ex Post Facto? Learning Goals Maintenance of Appropriate Teacher Role Due Process/ Sanctions Creative Assign- ment Design Learning and Authentic Assessment Yes Attention to Learning/ Process (Unlikely) Plagiarism No

    20. Why Give Assignments? • “Gauge what students have learned.” • “Assess their ability to express themselves in writing.” • “Test their comprehension of course material.” • “Look for the extent to which they can synthesize disparate views on a topic.” • “See what they got from the experiment.”

    21. Why Give Assignments? • “Provide an opportunity to practice skills of close observation and analysis.” • “Help them learn how to describe different positions on an issue in the discipline and evaluate those positions.” • “Acquire the conventions of writing in my discipline.” • “Get them to think critically.”

    22. Problem: We Tend to Use Writing as a Test • Learning-oriented • Particularized • Multiple texts • Goal-driven • More integrated • Assessment-oriented • Generalized • Single texts • Format-driven • Less integrated

    23. Dominant Orientation in Higher Ed • Assessment-oriented • Generalized • Single texts • Format-driven • Less integrated • Learning-oriented • Particularized • Multiple texts • Goal-driven • More integrated

    24. Potential for Submitting Others’ Work Learning-oriented • Assessment-oriented • easy • more reason to do so • less learning if done • difficult • less reason to do so • more learning if done

    25. Paper-as-Test Model learning testing ACTIVITIES Paper Paper

    26. Example: History A term paper of five to eight pages in length will be required and due at the end of week 14. This may be attached and sent to the instructor by e-mail. The paper must be in APA format (refer back to link at top of syllabus for the APA format guide). The term paper may be on any topic covered by the time frame of the textbook; that is of interest to the student. Please advise your instructor of your intended topic; so that, you do not pick something to difficult to research in a freshman level history class. http://www.bmcc.edu/nish/courses/HS101/HS101syllabus.htm#points

    27. Paper-as-Test (Plus Accountability) learning testing ACTIVITIES Paper plus “evidence” Paper plus “evidence”

    28. Example: Sociology You will write 3 essays, each about 5-10 pages long (not counting the Reference page). You must choose your 3 topics from the list provided below. Each essay must include at least 5 academic sources which cannot be dated before 1992. For each essay, you will turn in a rough draft and a final essay. Only the final essay will be graded and by the instructor only. Each essay will count 30% of your final grade. PLEASE TURN IN A COPY OF THE ARTICLES AND/OR BOOKS THAT YOU USED TO WRITE YOUR PAPER WITH YOUR FINAL DRAFT. I will return these back to you when I return your paper. http://www.as.wvu.edu/soc_a/sociology/faculty/latimer/389syllabus.htm

    29. Semi-Integrated Model learning testing ACTIVITIES Paper Paper

    30. Example: Architecture The rough drafts will not be graded, but you are required to turn it in anyway. . . . Don't short-change the rough draft. It's your chance to show me what you are going to turn in on the final copy so that I can tell you what could be better about it. If you don't get the rough draft to me by the due date, I don't guarantee that I'll be able to get comments back to you before the final copy due date (but I'll still try). http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/kpfleger/cs329_material/fall97/papers.html

    31. Example: Chemistry Peer Review (pick up drafts Friday Apr 16), peer review IN CLASS Monday Apr 19) You will be given rough drafts of your classmates papers on Friday. By class the following Monday, you should have thoroughly read the drafts and provided constructive criticism both on the draft and in a short paragraph summary for the author. Constructive criticism should include positive comments on aspects of the paper that are strong and comments that you think the author should work on. You should comment on the writing and the content. You will then discuss the drafts in small groups during Monday’s class. Rough drafts will be handed in with the final paper and peer review scores will be determined based on effort made in reviewing the drafts and participation during the in-class exercise. http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/whilesli/term_paper_assignment_446.pdf

    32. Fully Integrated Model learning testing ACTIVITIES WRITING Paper WRITING ACTIVITIES Paper WRITING

    33. Your Turn . . . . • Please read the Art History assignment. • In a pair or small group, critique this assign-ment generally. What works? What needs improvement? • Now critique it in terms of its potential to encourage or leave open the possibility of plagiarism. How can you change the curricular model to shut down this possibility?

    34. Lunch Break 12:00-1:00

    35. The Instructional Design Model Design Assignments Develop Goals for Students Learning Informal Formal Evaluate Learning Create Supporting Activities for Student Learning

    36. Operative Questions What new knowledge, skills, and processes do you want students to be able to know or use? Learning Goals Assignment Design What aspects of your assignment help to accomplish those goals? Supporting Strategies What activities support the development of the assignment? How do you judge whether the learning goals are reflected in students’ products? Assessment

    37. Plagiarism-Proofing: Goals • What learning goal(s) do you want students to acquire? • Describe each goal: is it informational (some pieces of knowledge)? Experiential (something experienced, or some skill practiced)? Affective (some new awareness or metaconsciousness)? • How does each goal help you to achieve the goals of your entire course?

    38. Plagiarism-Proofing: Start With Goals • Goal: Learn about an artist in the context of a work you’ve found in a museum. • Goal: Practice taking someone else’s biography of an artist and putting it into your own words. • Goal: Learn how to tell others, orally, something about an artist in a way that will interest and motivate them. • Goal: Be able to describe culture from an anthropological perspective and reach conclusions about behavior and cultural practice from careful observation.

    39. Choose a Mode/Focus on Design • Before you consider high-stakes, assessment-oriented assignments, consider low(er)-stakes assignments designed to encourage learning • Such assignments are driven by specific intellectual goals in your course • They tend to be linked well to your course material • They are easier to evaluate • They are very difficult to plagiarize

    40. Example: 20th C. Science & Tech. You are writing a letter to the high school teacher of your son or daughter. You know that the period covered in your child's course includes what is commonly referred to as the Middle Ages and you want to be sure that your son or daughter is not taught the "flat earth error" that seems to be implied in the textbook. In your letter, describe the "error" as presented in Russell's Inventing the Flat Earth, and explain why it is important that a more accurate story be presented to the class. (http://www1.umn.edu/scitech/microtheme1.htm)

    41. Example: Language & Linguistics (First informal assignment) What do you think about trying to keep the Lakota language alive and flourishing? Write a page or two explaining your position. (Second assignment, after first is discussed/handed in) What do you think about trying to keep the dialect spoken on Tangier Island alive and flourishing? Write a page or two justifying your position relative to your first response. (Third assignment, after second is discussed/handed in) What do you think about trying to help keep Ebonics alive and flourishing? Write a page or two justifying your position relative to your other two responses.

    42. Example: Studies in the Family First informal assignment) What information, perspectives, and strategies should prospective parents know before they decide to have children? Write a page or so explaining your position. (Second assignment, after first is discussed/handed in) Should schools have a required curriculum on parenting that teaches the information, perspectives, and strategies you advocated in Stage 1 of this informal assignment? Justify your position. (Third assignment, after second is discussed/handed in) Parental “licensing” programs have been suggested to combat parental abuse and ignorance. The state would require parents to demonstrate knowledge (through tests or coursework) before getting a license to have children. New parents who have not obtained a license would be required to obtain one immediately or face removal of their child to protective custody. Argue for or against this method of providing the information you advocated in Stage 1 of the assignment.

    43. Example: Physics The special theory of relativity rests on two experimentally verified principles, one of which (the constancy of the speed of light) is so surprising and hard to accept that after hearing it for the first time, most people either miss the point or think they must have misunderstood what was said. Explain this non-intuitive property of light in a way that would be clear and understandable to a non-scientist. Using non-technical language and analogies from everyday life, contrast the behavior of light with that of familiar objects traveling at speeds much less than c. Length: One page. (http://www.indiana.edu/~cwp/assgn/biomods/p300.html

    44. Example: Early Modern China Pick an event (the Sino-Japanese war, the Boxer rebellion, the fall of the Qing dynasty or some other event) which is discussed in this course and find accounts of the event in at least two newspapers published at the time of the event, one of which must be from a newspaper which was not published in the U.S. (You may not write on an event which happened after 1917.) Your paper should include a Xeroxed copy of the newspaper accounts, plus your analysis of the accounts in the light of the readings, lectures and class discussions. http://writing.umn.edu/tww/WID/history/assignments/social_response.html

    45. Example: Invertebrate Zoology [A]rrange the propositions below in a logical order, connect the individual statements with appropriate transitions, and arrive at a conclusion that is supported by your argument. Using all of the points supplied below, write a 2-page essay on the topic, “The relationship between coral and zooxanthellae.” • Coral reefs are formed by scleractinian corals that typically occur in shallow (<60m) water. • Hermatypic corals contain photosynthetic algae (zooxanthellae) in special membrane- bound cavities inside the cells of the gastrodermis. • Reef corals are limited to clear water because suspended material interferes with the transmission of light. • Over two-thirds of the metabolic requirements of corals are provided by zooxanthellae. [ETC.] • cwp.missouri.edu/resources/ samples

    46. Your Turn . . . . • Consider the twelve low-stakes assignments. • In a small group, discuss which of the assignments might realize specific learning goals in your course. If you already use any of the samples, explain what you do. Or collectively come up with new ideas for low-stakes, creative, learning-based assignments for your courses.

    47. Plagiarism-Proofing: More Design Strategies • If a specific, generalized form or genre is not crucial, can you achieve the goal(s) through highly particularized and unique assignments? Cases? Hybrid or mixed genres? • What “input” from your course can you incorporate into your assignment that comes only from your course? • How can you break larger projects up into smaller assignments?

    48. Design Opportunity • Create unique kinds of assignments • creative angles and topics • hybrid genres • multi-modal assignments • episodic or multi-staged tasks • cases and scenarios

    49. Mixed Medium: FSN Goal: Analyze and present known information about nutrition within a specific culture while respecting and valuing cultural traditions in dietary practices. Sketch of assignment: Students investigate the dietary practices of a specific cultural or ethnic group (Cuban American, Japanese, Hmong, Pakistani, Southeastern U.S., etc.). They write up a nutritional analysis (and give a presentation) in a way that balances an understanding of and respect for the culture or ethnic group.