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Terminology. Endemic - habitual presence of a disease within a given area Epidemic - occurrence of a disease in a region in excess of normal Pandemic - worldwide epidemic. Causes of diseases. Bacteria - single-celled, no nucleus

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terminology
Terminology
  • Endemic - habitual presence of a disease within a given area
  • Epidemic - occurrence of a disease in a region in excess of normal
  • Pandemic - worldwide epidemic
causes of diseases
Causes of diseases
  • Bacteria - single-celled, no nucleus
  • Virus - sub-microscopic infectious agent that can’t survive outside a host cell
  • Environmental - non-biological agent such as a toxic substance
  • Genetic - hereditary disease from genetic defects
  • Prion - Abnormal proteins
  • Protist - diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms
  • Fungi and more
modes of transmission
Modes of Transmission
  • Direct - person to person
    • Airborne transmission
    • Droplet transmission
    • Fecal-oral transmission
    • Sexually transmission
    • Blood-borne transmission
modes of transmission4
Modes of Transmission
  • Indirect - through a common vehicle or vector
    • Exposure to a contaminant (single, multiple or continuous exposure)
    • Vector-borne transmission
examples
Examples
  • Virus with aerosol transmission
    • Measles, mumps, rubella
  • Bacteria with food/water transmission
    • Cholera, salmonella
  • Protozoan with vector-borne transmission
    • Malaria, giardia
basic model concepts
Basic Model Concepts
  • Identify all stages of a given disease
    • Susceptible
    • Exposed
    • Infectious
    • Recovered / Removed
    • Vaccinated
    • Etc.
basic model concepts7
Basic Model Concepts
  • Identify disease progression
  • Link stages according to epidemiology of disease
slide8

S

I

R

SIR
  • SIR - Chicken Pox
learn by doing
Learn by doing
  • Time for hands on games
  • Rules for games
    • Divide into groups of 4-6 students
    • Share responsibility for tasks
    • Don’t spill the beads!!
    • Ask any questions you have
game 1 disease modeling
Game #1 – Disease Modeling
  • Tasks: Cup holder, scribe, clear bead manager, blue bead manager, bead selector
  • Rules:
    • Start with 20 clear beads and 1 blue bead
    • Bead selector pulls out 2 beads (no peeking!!)
    • If 2 clear or 2 blue – put both back, if 1 clear and 1 blue – put 2 blues back
    • Repeat until time is up
    • Scribe counts final numbers
what did you get
What did you get?
  • How many of each bead did you get?
  • Did everyone get the same results?
  • Why or why not?
game 2 disease modeling revisited
Game #2 – Disease Modeling Revisited
  • Tasks: Cup holder, scribe, clear bead manager, blue bead manager, bead selector
  • Rules:
    • Start with 20 clear beads and 1 blue bead
    • Bead selector pulls out 2 beads (no peeking!!)
    • If 2 clear or 2 blue – put both back
    • If 1 clear and 1 blue, flip a coin. If heads, put 2 blues back, if tails, put 1 clear and 1 blue back
    • Repeat until time is up
    • Scribe counts final numbers
modifications
Modifications
  • Not always sick forever so could replace sick people with recovered people at some time
  • Could vaccinate people so they can’t get sick
  • Other ideas?
what about ecology
What about ecology?
  • Ecology has benefited from math for a longer time
  • Many ecology concepts are natural models such as predator-prey and competition
  • Again, looking at populations and flow rates between them
more games
More games!!
  • Again often start from a simple hands on experiment links the math and biology more closely
  • Often send students out to
    • measure length and width of leaves
    • measure length of middle finger to height
    • Anything that teaches relationships
game 3 founder effect
Game #3 Founder Effect
  • Tasks: Cup holder, scribe, clear bead manager, blue bead manager, bead selector
  • Rules:
    • Start with one blue bead and one clear bead
    • Bead selector pulls out 1 bead (no peeking!!)
    • If pull a blue bead, put two blues back into cup. If pull a clear bead, put two clear beads back into cup.
    • Repeat until time is up
    • Scribe counts final numbers
founder effect
Founder Effect
  • What were the results?
  • What does that imply for genetics in isolated populations?
game 4 predator prey
Game #4 Predator-Prey
  • Tasks: Rabbit breeder, Lynx, scribe
  • Rules:
    • Start with 3 rabbits spread across the meadow
    • Toss the lynx square once to catch rabbits
    • 3 rabbits = lynx survives and reproduces
    • All rabbits breed so double the number of rabbits and disperse across the meadow
    • If lynx doesn’t get 3 rabbits, it dies
    • If no lynx, one immigrates. If no rabbits, 3 immigrate
    • Repeat
predator prey
Predator-Prey
  • Plot the numbers you got for lynx and rabbits in each generation
  • Can you predict how many there would be in the next generations?