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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1Population Patterns Section 2History and Government Section 3Cultures and Lifestyles Chapter Summary & Study Guide Chapter Assessment Contents Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

  3. Intro 1

  4. Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  5. About 9 percent of the population of present-day Mexico is considered indigenous. However, the actual percentage of Mexicans descended from the Aztec, Inca, Maya, and other ancient peoples is much higher. Since the conquering Spaniards freely intermarried with the indigenous people, most modern Mexicans are of mixed heritage. Section 1-5

  6. Human Characteristics • A Blending of Peoples The ancestors of Native Americans were the first people to settle Latin America, followed by Europeans in the 1400s, enslaved Africans in the 1500s, and Asians in the 1800s. Section 1-6 (pages 211–213) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  7. Human Characteristics (cont.) • LanguageLanguage helps bring together the diverse ethnic groups of Latin America. Section 1-7 • Spanish is the primary language of most countries in the region, but Portuguese, French, English, and many local dialects also are spoken. (pages 211–213) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  8. Human Characteristics (cont.) Why is Spanish the primary language in Latin America? Section 1-8 Possible answer: Spain was the first European country to conquer Mexico and South America, and the Spaniards imposed their language and culture on the region. (pages 211–213) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  9. Where Latin Americans Live • South America’s Populated Rim Most South Americans live on the continent’s coastal edges, the “populated rim” that provides favorable climates, fertile land, and access to transportation systems.  Section 1-9 • Relatively few South Americans live in the continent’s inland areas. (pages 213–215) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  10. Where Latin Americans Live (cont.) Section 1-10 (pages 213–215) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  11. Where Latin Americans Live (cont.) • Population Density Population densities vary greatly within Latin American countries.  Section 1-11 • One important factor in a country’s population density is its area. • For example, most South American countries are large and their population densities are low, but the Caribbean islands are small and much more densely populated. (pages 213–215) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  12. Where Latin Americans Live (cont.) Section 1-12 (pages 213–215) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  13. Migration • Migrating North In addition to immigrants settling in Latin America from other countries, many Latin Americans migrate–both legally and illegally–to the United States, looking for economic opportunities, improved living conditions, political freedom, or escape from political unrest. Section 1-14 (pages 215–216)

  14. Migration (cont.) • Internal Migration As in many other parts of the world, many Latin Americans from the rural areas migrate to cities in search of better jobs or because of a shortage of fertile land to farm. Section 1-15 (pages 215–216)

  15. Migration (cont.) What effect do Latin American migration patterns have on the United States and on Latin American cities? Section 1-16 Possible answer: Cities become crowded, services such as education and health care cannot meet the needs of the growing populations, and there are not enough places for people to live. One effect Latin American immigration has had on the United States is that Spanish is spoken by a growing number of people. (pages 215–216) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  16. Growth of Cities • The Urban SettingToday most Latin Americans live in urban areas.  Section 1-17 • Mexico City is the largest urban area in the region, with 18 million people.  • Other large cities include Caracas, Venezuela; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; São Paolo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Havana, Cuba. (pages 216–217) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  17. Growth of Cities (cont.) • Urban Challenges Immigrants seeking a better life for themselves have overcrowded cities, and living conditions are poor for many people.  Section 1-18 • Resources in cities are strained by population growth. (pages 216–217) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  18. Analyzing Maps Region Study the language map on the right. What is the most widely spoken language in Central America? Section 1-24 Spanish is the most widely spoken language in Central America. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  19. Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  20. Native American Empires (cont.) • Gifts to the World’s Tables Several foods grown by the Aztec, such as corn, tomatoes, and cacao beans–used to make chocolate–have become worldwide favorites. Section 2-8 (pages 220–222)

  21. Native American Empires (cont.) • The Inca During the time of the Aztec, the Inca established a civilization in the Andes Mountains that stretched from present-day Ecuador to central Chile. Section 2-9 • The Inca were skilled terrace farmers who built roads, temples, and forts, but they had no written language.  • Storytelling was used to pass on knowledge to each generation. (pages 220–222) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  22. Empires to Nations • European ConquestsSpanish conquistadors defeated the Aztec and Incan empires. Section 2-11 • The Portuguese settled on the coast of Brazil.  • Later, Britain, France, and the Netherlands colonized in the Caribbean area.  • As a result of these conquests, European colonies arose throughout Latin America.  • The Roman Catholic Church became the major unifying institution in both Spanish and Portuguese colonies. (pages 222–224) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  23. Empires to Nations (cont.) • Gaining Independence In the late 1700s, resentment against European rule spread through Latin America.  Section 2-13 •  • In 1821 Mexico won its freedom from Spain. • By the mid-1800s, most Latin American countries had achieved independence. • A few Caribbean islands still remain under foreign control today. (pages 222–224) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  24. Era of Dictatorships • Latin America’s wars for independence led to the emergence of a new kind of leader–a caudillo, or dictator, who ruled with the backing of the military and wealthy landowners. Section 2-15 (page 224)

  25. Era of Dictatorships(cont.) Do you think life in a military dictatorship was better or worse for Latin Americans than life under colonial rule? Explain your answer. Section 2-16 Possible answers: Better, because at least the dictator was a fellow countryman who ruled locally. Worse, because colonial rule was probably less severe in some ways, and thus rules were more easily bent or ignored. (page 224) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  26. Movements for Change • During the 1900s, the formation of industries, the building of railroads, and the expansion of trade brought wealth to Latin America’s upper classes. Section 2-17 • Progress was limited, however, for the majority of Latin Americans, especially rural dwellers.  • Many people began to demand reform and an end to the peonage system. (pages 224–225) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  27. Movements for Change(cont.) • .  Section 2-18 • During the 1990s, several military dictatorships gave way to democratically elected governments. In 1959, the Cuban Revolution made Cuba a communist state ruled by dictator Fidel Castro (pages 224–225) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  28. Movements for Change(cont.) Section 2-19 (pages 224–225) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  29. Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  30. Baseball is very popular in many areas of Latin America. In 2001, over 20 percent of the major league players in the United States were from Latin American countries. Many come from the Dominican Republic or Puerto Rico; others are from Panama, Venezuela, Mexico, and Cuba. Although Cuba forbids its citizens to travel to the United States, some Cuban players have found their way to the United States and have remained. Section 3-5

  31. Religion • Roman CatholicismMost Christians in Latin America are Roman Catholics. Section 3-6 •  • The church became wealthy and supported the rich and powerful classes of society.  (pages 226–228) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  32. Religion (cont.) • Protestantism Protestantism came to Latin America with Dutch and British settlers in the 1800s.  Section 3-7 • Recently the number of Protestants has grown rapidly because of Protestantism’s emphasis on lay participation. (pages 226–228) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  33. Everyday Life • Families In Latin America the family extends beyond parents and children to include grandparents, uncles and aunts, cousins, and compadres, or godparents. Section 3-15 • Latin American society still displays traces of the Spanish and Portuguese tradition of male supremacy, but women have expanded their public role in many fields, including election to public office. (pages 229–231) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  34. Everyday Life (cont.) Section 3-16 (pages 229–231) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  35. Everyday Life (cont.) • Education and Health Care • Most Latin American children are required to complete elementary school, but often they do not because of economic hardships.  Section 3-17 • Some gains in education have been made, however.  • Literacy rates are rising, governments are devoting more funds to schools, and some countries are seeing gains in school attendance. University enrollment also is rising. (pages 229–231) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  36. Everyday Life (cont.) • Poverty, malnutrition, and lack of sanitation and clean drinking water are major health concerns. Section 3-18 (pages 229–231) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  37. Everyday Life (cont.) • Sports and Leisure Latin Americans are passionate sports fans, especially of fútbol (called soccer in the United States) and baseball.  Section 3-19 (pages 229–231) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  38. Everyday Life (cont.) Section 3-20 (pages 229–231) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  39. Everyday Life (cont.) How quickly do you think you could adjust to everyday life in Latin America? Section 3-21 Possible answers: Some may say everyday life in Latin America seems much like life in the United States. Females might have trouble adjusting to the element of machismo in Latin American life. Some may or may not be accustomed to interacting with an extended family. (pages 229–231) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  40. Analyzing Charts Place Study the chart showing religions below. Which religion in Latin America is second to Roman Catholicism in its number of followers? Section 3-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  41. Locating Places Match the letters on the map with the places of Latin America. __1. Caracas __2. Brasília __3. Port-au-Prince __4. Santiago __5. Montevideo __6. Bogotá __7. Quito __8. Havana __9. Mexico City __10. La Paz, Sucre __11. Buenos Aires __12. Lima D C F H E J G B I K L A Chapter Assessment 12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

  42. Africans in BoliviaSpanish conquistadors forced enslaved Africans to work in the silver mines of Bolivia after thousands of Bolivians died from diseases brought from Spain. Many Africans, unable to adjust to the climate and high altitude, died more quickly than the indigenous Bolivians had. Surviving African descendants settled in the rain forests east of the Andes. Culture Note 1a

  43. Reading a Population Density Map Population density measures how many people live within a certain unit area, such as a square mile or square kilometer. Population density may vary from place to place within a country or region. A population density map shows you these variations. SkillBuilder 1

  44. Maps and Charts 1

  45. Maps and Charts 2

  46. Maps and Charts 3

  47. Maps and Charts 4

  48. Maps and Charts 5

  49. Maps and Charts 6

  50. Political Map Transparency