A New Nation. UNITED STATES HISTORY Mr. Durfee. George Washington. Constitution signed 1787 Sent out for state ratification and approved by states 1791. Elected President 1789 John Adams elected VP Capital of U.S. in NYC. First President-First Cabinet.
UNITED STATES HISTORY
Constitution signed 1787
Sent out for state ratification and approved by states 1791.
Elected President 1789
John Adams elected VP
Capital of U.S. in NYC
Alexander Hamilton- Secretary of Treasury
Henry Knox-Secretary of War
Thomas Jefferson-Secretary of State
Supreme Court Established
13 lower Federal Court districts
3 Circuit Courts
Supreme Court had final say
John Jay 1st Chief Justice
Congress would move to Philadelphia from NYC while new capital city was being planned between Maryland and Virginia in present-day Washington, D.C.
Alexander Hamilton compromised with Southern legislators to pay off American debts by agreeing to locate the new American capital city in the South
The next argument would be whether or not the United States would establish a national bank favored by Hamilton but strongly opposed by Jefferson and Madison
Washington would agree with Hamilton that even though Constitution did not say the U.S. could set up a national bank it did not say it could not do so (first example of implied powers)
Tariffs (taxes on imported goods) would be charged to encourage Americans to buy products made in America
Southern states not supportive as their economy was based on farming and had very little manufacturing interests.
Hamilton would win support in Congress for lower tariffs to raise money rather than to protect businesses providing the U.S. with 90% of their revenue by the 1790’s
The final portion of Hamilton’s master plan was to establish a series of national taxes. A tax would be approved on a variety of items including whiskey which would not sit well with many distillers and would lead to riots.
Hamilton’s national tax programs would lead to one of the nation’s first tests of the ability of the government to control uprisings in July of 1794
Whiskey distillers in Western Pennsylvania near the town of present day Heidelberg, PA attacked tax collector John Neville at his home.
Hamilton urged President Washington to send troops to squash the rebellion. After negotiations proved futile, Washington gave in to Hamilton’s plan.
Hamilton and Henry Lee led a force of 13,000 militia and put down the rebellion in quick order with 3-4 rebels killed and 1 militia member killed. It proved that the new nation could control uprisings in short order. This made Jefferson nervous about Hamilton.
Native Americans living between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River denied any authority the United States had over them
Britain and Spain more than willing to prevent American settlement of western lands
Washington made treaties with Native Americans to prevent troubles but settlers ignored treaties and settled on Native American land anyway.
Fighting would break out between the two groups.
Washington sent an army under General Arthur St. Clair to restore order in Northwest Territory in November of 1791
Chief Little Turtle of the Miami tribe led 1000 Native Americans to annihilate St. Claire’s forces near the Wabash River in present day Fort Recovery in western Ohio on the Indiana border leaving only 48 unharmed to escape to tell of the carnage. 623 American soldiers were killed
Worst defeat of the U.S. Army ever by Native Americans. Washington would fire St. Clair and Congress would open a full scale investigation of the Executive branch.
This problem had to be dealt with swiftly and quickly.
Washington sent Revolutionary War General “Mad” Anthony Wayne to challenge Native American Demands that Americans leave all territory north of the Ohio River.
In August 1794, Wayne would crush Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near present day Toledo, Ohio
In the Treaty of Greenville of 1795, Native Americans would agree to give up much of the land in present day Ohio.
***French Revolution would begin in 1789, and would end with the beheading king and queen of France
***Britain would go to war with France in 1793. Americans in the South would sympathize for the French. Americans in the north would trade with Britain
***Hamilton and Adams would side with the British while Jefferson would side with the French
***France tried to drag the U.S. into their fight. Washington would issue Proclamation of Neutrality April 22, 1793 forbidding Americans from fighting for either side. French and British ships banned from U.S. ports
***British ships would stop American merchant ships and force American crews into service in the British navy. This was called impressment and it angered Americans.
John Jay sent to England to negotiate a settlement to prevent war with Britain
Britain agreed to :
Withdraw all troops from American soil
Pay damages for all American ships seized
Allow some American ships to trade with British colonies in Caribbean
Forgive all debts incurred prior to 1776
Narrowly approved by Senate as many Americans were still outraged and demanded retribution for the impressment of Americans into the British Navy
Treaty with Spain made in 1795 referred to as PINCKNEY’S TREATY for the diplomat Thomas Pinckney who negotiated with Spain.
Gave Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River
Gave Americans Right to Trade in New Orleans.
Treaty of London 1794
Treaty of San Lorenzo
-September 1796 Washington announced he would not seek a third term and would retire to Mount Vernon at the age of 64
-Warned against political parties and getting involved in problems of other countries
-His parting words would influence foreign policy for the next 100 years when he said : “observe good faith and justice toward all nations…Tis our policy to steer clear of permanent alliances.”
-Our country would make every effort to keep to ourselves.
led by Hamilton
Candidates sought office as members of a political party for the first time
Held caucuses (meetings) to chose their candidate for each party
Federalists nominate John Adams for President and Charles Pinckney for Vice-President
Democratic Republicans put chose Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for Vice-President
Adams Jefferson while once friends became rivals and started mudslinging
Adams won Presidency and Jefferson won Vice-Presidency with second highest electoral votes
The U.S. had a Federalist President and Republican Vice-President
In an attempt to avoid war with France Adams sent a diplomats to France
French agents sent by French Minister Charles Talleyrand attempted to bribe Americans for a loan .
Americans told the French they would get “NOT A SIX PENCE!” . Adams referred to the French agents as X, Y, and Z . This would become known as the “XYZ AFFAIR”
Adams told Congress to prepare for war with France by increasing navy and building warships.
After French warships attacked U.S. ships a peace agreement was reached with France in 1800.
Allowed the President to imprison aliens or those he considered dangerous out of the country
Made it a crime to speak , write or publish “false, scandalous or malicious” criticisms of the government. This was done to silence anti-Federalist pro-Republican opinions.
Threat of war with France made Americans suspicious of aliens (people living in the U.S. who were not citizens)
VA and KY Resolutions of 1798 and 1799 ruled Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional and suggested states nullify them (overturn federal law) .
This proved the principle of state’s rights because the ACTS contained powers reserved for the states per the 10th Amendment