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WHAT HAPPENS WHEN PIECES OF THE CRUST ARE FORCED TOGETHER ? . Extension and i njection of mantle material into crust. Extension and i njection of mantle material into crust. Crustal Compression. Extension and i njection of mantle material into crust. Extension and

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slide2

Extension and

injection of mantle material into crust

Extension and

injection of mantle material into crust

slide3

Crustal

Compression

Extension and

injection of mantle material into crust

Extension and

injection of mantle material into crust

slide4

Crustal

Compression

Extension and

injection of mantle material into crust

Extension and

injection of mantle material into crust

?

Mass leaving Mantle

Injected to Crust.

Mass leaving Mantle

Injected to Crust.

Unless Crustal material is returned mantle in equal volume the Earth will grow larger and larger, but also “hollower” and “hollower”.

Consideration of

Conservation of Mass:

crustal compression1
CRUSTAL COMPRESSION

Crustal

Thickening

crustal compression2
CRUSTAL COMPRESSION

Crustal

Thickening

crustal compression3
CRUSTAL COMPRESSION

Crustal

Thickening

Crustal

Faulting

slide9

Crustal Convergence

and Compression.

Heat

Heat and

Pressure

Denser Crust to Mantle.

slide10

CRUSTAL ROCKS

Two Origins of Crustal Rocks:

Continental Crust – Lower density as “floated” to outside of Earth.

Oceanic Crust – Higher density as origin deeper in the mantle.

Block 2

Block 1

Continental

Crust

Continental

Crust

Oceanic Crust

slide11

CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES

Two types of crustal rocks, thus three possible

types of convergence:

1. Oceanic vs. Continental:

e.g. Western South America

slide12

CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES

Two types of crustal rocks, thus three possible

types of convergence:

1. Oceanic vs. Continental:

e.g. Western South America

2. Oceanic vs. Oceanic:

e.g. Japanese Islands

slide13

CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES

Two types of crustal rocks, thus three possible

types of convergence:

1. Oceanic vs. Continental:

e.g. Western South America

2. Oceanic vs. Oceanic:

e.g. Japanese Islands

3. Continental vs. Continental:

e.g. Himalayas

slide15

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

slide16

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

slide17

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

slide18

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide19

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide20

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide21

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide22

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide23

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

CONVERGENCE AND CRUSTAL COMPRESSION

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide24

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Crustal Thickening

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide25

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Compressional Faulting

MatoGrosso

Brazilian Highlands

Guiana Highlands

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide26

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

More dense oceanic crust

Sub-ducted beneath South America

MatoGrosso

Brazilian Highlands

Guiana Highlands

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide27

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Deep ocean

trench

MatoGrosso

Brazilian Highlands

Guiana Highlands

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide28

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Shallow

Earthquakes

Deep

Earthquakes

MatoGrosso

Brazilian Highlands

Guiana Highlands

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Heat and pressure

cause melting

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide29

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Ocean sediments

MatoGrosso

Brazilian Highlands

Guiana Highlands

East

Pacific

Rise

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Andes

Heat and pressure

cause melting

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide30

WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

Pacific Ocean

South America

Atlantic Ocean

Andes

MatoGrosso

Brazilian Highlands

Guiana Highlands

East

Pacific

Rise

Active Volcanoes

Mid-

Atlantic

Ridge

Heat and pressure

cause melting

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

South American

Plate

African

Plate

slide33

2. JAPANESE ISLANDS

GENERAL SETTING

slide34

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

slide35

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

slide36

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide37

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide38

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide39

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide40

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

CONVERGENCE AND CRUSTAL COMPRESSION

East

Pacific

Rise

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide41

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Plate composed entirely of denser oceanic crust, is subducted beneath the oceanic fringe of the dominantly continental Eurasian Plate.

East

Pacific

Rise

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide42

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

Ocean trench

East

Pacific

Rise

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide43

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Heat and

Pressure cause melting

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide44

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

Shallow and deep earthquakes

East

Pacific

Rise

Heat and

Pressure cause melting

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide45

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

Mountain building breaking

ocean surface as a series of islands or “island arcs”.

East

Pacific

Rise

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide46

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Compressional faulting permits “recycled” oceanic crust to rise to the surface, producing active volcanoes.

Pacific Ocean

East

Pacific

Rise

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

do it yourself island arcs
DO IT YOURSELF ISLAND ARCS!
  • TAKE A FLAT SHEET OF PAPER OR A PAGE FROM YOUR NOTEBOOK – SURFACE PLATE LIKE THE PACIFIC.
  • MAKE A SEMI-CIRCLE WITH YOUR THUMB AND INDEX FINGER ON ONE HAND AND THE DESK – THE SMALLER SPACE IN THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH AS THE RADIUS DIMINISHES.
  • TRY TO PUSH THE PAPER THROUGH THE RESTRICTED SEMI-CIRCLE WITHOUTH CREASING IT.
  • WHAT HAPPENS TO THE SHAPE FORMED BY YOUR “FLAT” PIECE OF PAPER?
  • IF SEDIMENT WAS SCRAPED OFF THE TOP OF THAT PAPER, WHAT SHAPE WOULD THE ACCUMULATED SEDIMENTS DESCRIBE?
slide48

Island Arcs

Ocean

Trenches

slide49

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

As the Pacific plate is subducted it tends to “roll-back” southeastwards, pulling the Japanese Islands further off of Asia.

East

Pacific

Rise

“Push”

“Pull”

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide50

JAPANESE ISLANDS

Asia

Sea of

Japan

Pacific Ocean

Motion of Japanese islands away from Asia causes split of crust and “back arc spreading” beneath the sea of Japan .

East

Pacific

Rise

Eurasian

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Nazca

Plate

slide54

Displacement during

Earthquake March 2011.

Source: Simons et al., 2011

Science Express

slide55

CREDIT: ADAPTED FROM THE EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH COMMITTEE, NATIONAL SEISMIC HAZARD MAPS FOR JAPAN (2010), HEADQUARTERS FOR EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH PROMOTION

slide56

3. HIMALAYA

GENERAL SETTING

slide57

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

EARLY DIVERGENCE AND

CRUSTAL EXTENSION

Africa

India

Africa and India part of the same continental mass, Gondwanaland, also comprised of present day, South Africa, Australia and Antarctica.

slide58

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

Eurasia (Europe and Asia), part of northern continental landmass including present day North America.

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide59

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

Sea of Tethys

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Tethys

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide60

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

CONVERGENCE (Ocean vs Continent) AND CRUSTAL COMPRESSION

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Tethys

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide61

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

Tethys Ocean crust

subducted beneath Eurasian continent

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Tethys

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide62

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

Ocean trench

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Tethys

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide63

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

Melting under

Heat and pressure

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Tethys

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide64

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

Earthquakes

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Tethys

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide65

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

Mountain

building

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Tethys

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide66

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

250 million years ago

Volcanoes

Eurasia

Africa

India

African

Plate

Tethys

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide67

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

150 million years ago

Indian

Ocean

Africa

India

Sea of

Tethys

Eurasia

Indo-Australian

Plate

Tethys

Plate

African

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide68

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

75 million years ago

Indian

Ocean

Africa

India

Sea of

Tethys

Eurasia

Indo-Australian

Plate

Tethys

Plate

African

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide69

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS

Present

Himalaya

Mountains

Indian

Ocean

Africa

India

Eurasia

Tethys

Plate

Indo-Australian

Plate

African

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide70

TIBET

PLATEAU

HIMALAYA

CHINA

PAKISTAN

INDIA

BANGLADESH

INDUS

GANGES

03.00.a1d

slide72

SICHUAN EARTHQUAKE

CHINA, 2008.

slide73

WORLD’S 100 HIGHEST MOUNTAINS

Himalaya and

Associated Ranges

Andes

ELEVATION (m)

RANK

slide74

VOLCANOES

03.02.b1

WHY NO VOLCANOES?

slide75

WHAT’S HAPPENING NOW?

Present

Himalaya

Mountains

Tibetan

Plateau

Indian

Ocean

Eurasia

India

Tethys

Plate

Indo-Australian

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

slide76

WHAT’S HAPPENING NOW?

Present

Himalaya

Mountains

Tibetan

Plateau

Indian

Ocean

Eurasia

India

?

Tethys

Plate

Indo-Australian

Plate

Eurasian

Plate

global distribution of earthquakes1
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKES

1. Western South America

global distribution of volcanoes1
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES

1. Western South America