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Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Most Brilliant Events in the Universe. D. Q. Lamb (U. Chicago). High-Energy Transient Explorer. Swift. PHYSICS for the THIRD MILLENNIUM: II Huntsville, AL 5–7 April 2005.

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gamma ray bursts the most brilliant events in the universe
Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Most Brilliant Events in the Universe

D. Q. Lamb (U. Chicago)

High-Energy Transient Explorer

Swift

PHYSICS for the THIRD MILLENNIUM: II

Huntsville, AL

5–7 April 2005

electromagnetic spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Universe, Freedman and Kaufmann, 7th edition(W. H. Freeman)

serendipitous discovery of gamma ray bursts
Serendipitous Discovery of Gamma-Ray Bursts
  • Vela satellites built and

flown to monitor partial

nuclear test ban treaty

(1962)

  • Mysterious events first

noted in 1967

  • New Vela satellites built;

additional data obtained

in 1971-73

  • Discovery of “cosmic

gamma-ray bursts”

announced (1973)

Klebesadel, Strong, and Olson (1973)

compton gamma ray observatory
Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

BATSE – Fishman, Meegan, Paciesas, et al. (1991)

durations of gamma ray bursts
Durations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Long GRBs

Short GRBs

Kouveliotou et al. (1993)

spectra of gamma ray bursts
Spectra of Gamma-Ray Bursts

GRB Spectrum

Peaks in Gamma - Rays

XRF Spectrum

Peaks in X-Rays

sky distribution of gamma ray bursts
Sky Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Paciesas et al. (2000)

Distribution of GRBs is uniform (random) on sky

discovery of x ray afterglow of grb
Discovery of X-Ray Afterglow of GRB

Piro, Costa, Frontera, et al. (1997)

grbs lie at cosmological distances
GRBs Lie at Cosmological Distances

GRB 970508

z = 0.83

Metzger et al. (1997)

optical afterglow and host galaxy of grb 990123
Optical Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 990123

Fruchter et al. (1999)

grbs occur in star forming regions of starburst galaxies
GRBs Occur in Star-Forming Regions of Starburst Galaxies

Fruchter et al. (2004)

high energy transient explorer
High-Energy Transient Explorer

WXM

FREGATE

SXC

Ricker, Lamb, Atteia, Kawai, Fenimore, Woosley (2000)

grb 030329 z 0 167
GRB 030329 (z = 0.167)

Vanderspek et al. (2004)

long grbs come from collapse of massive stars are possibly birth cry of black holes
Long GRBs Come from Collapse of Massive Stars – Are (Possibly) Birth Cry of Black Holes

Stanek et al. (2003)

grbs come from narrow jets
GRBs Come From Narrow Jets
  • Bulk motion of jet is

v = 0.999 c, so special

relativistic beaming is

dramatic

  • Optical light decreases

when jet slows down

and we begin to see

beyond edge of jet

et al. (1999)

grbs are ultra relativistic jets v 0 999 c
GRBs Are Ultra-Relativistic Jets (v = 0.999 c)

Universe, Freedman and Kaufmann, 7th edition(W. H. Freeman)

numerical simulation of grb jet
Numerical Simulation of GRB Jet

Zhang and Woosley (2004)

spectra of gamma ray bursts1
Spectra of Gamma-Ray Bursts

Epeak

GRB Spectrum

Peaks in Gamma - Rays

Epeak

XRF Spectrum

Peaks in X-Rays

relation between spectral peak energy e peak and isotropic radiated energy e iso
Relation Between Spectral Peak Energy (Epeak) and Isotropic Radiated Energy (Eiso)
  • Found by BeppoSAX

for GRBs (Amati et

al. 2002)

  • Confirmed for GRBs

and extended to XRFs

by HETE-2 (Sakamoto

et al. 2004; Lamb et al.

2004)

  • Relation spans five

decades in Eiso

GRB 031203

GRB 980425

phenomenological jet models
Phenomenological Jet Models

Diagram fromLloyd-Ronning and Ramirez-Ruiz (2002)

  • Power-Law

Shaped Jet

  • Top-Hat

Shaped Jet

variable opening angle top hat jet vs universal power law jet
Variable Opening-Angle Top-Hat Jet vs. Universal Power-Law Jet

DQL, Donaghy, and Graziani (2004)

  • VOA top-hat jet can account for both XRFs and GRBs
  • Universal power-law jet can account for GRBs, but not

both XRFs and GRBs

swift
Swift

XRT

UVOT

BAT

Gehrels et al. (2004)

Swift’s Revolutionary Feature is Its Ability to Quickly

(< 100 sec) Observer GRBs in X-Rays and UV/Optical

properties of grbs hete 2 and swift

HETE Passband

Swift Passband

Properties of GRBs: HETE-2 and Swift

Even with the BAT’s huge effective area (~2600 cm2), HETE can better determine the spectral properties of most bursts, especially XRFs

GRB Spectrum

Peaks in Gamma - Rays

XRF Spectrum

Peaks in X-Rays

value of the scientific partnership between hete and swift
Value of the Scientific Partnership Between HETE and Swift
  • GRBs plus XRFs provide unique information about
    • structure of GRB jets
    • GRB rate
    • nature of Type Ic SNe
  • Extracting this information will require prompt
    • localization of many XRFs
    • determination of Eiso and Epeak
    • identification of X-ray and optical afterglows
    • determination of redshifts
  • HETE is ideally suited to do thefirst two, whereas Swift (with 15 < E < 150 keV) is not; Swift is ideally suited to do thesecond two, whereas HETE cannot
  • Prompt Swift XRT and UVOT observationsof HETE bursts can greatlyadvance our understanding of GRBs and XRFs
xrf050215b example of scientific partnership between hete and swift
XRF050215b: Example of Scientific Partnership Between HETE and Swift

HETE FREGATE

Swift BAT

Sakamoto et al. (2005)

dark matter dominates mass of galaxies
Dark Matter Dominates Mass of Galaxies

Kepler’s Law

Universe, Freedman and Kaufmann, 7th edition(W. H. Freeman)

type ia sne can be used as standard candles
Type Ia SNe Can Be Used As “Standard Candles”
  • Peak luminosities of

Type Ia SNe range

over a factor > 5

  • Using correlation
  • between peak luminosity
  • and rate of decline
  • reduces range to ~ 10%
non euclidian geometry of space time
Non-Euclidian Geometry of Space-Time

Universe, Freedman and Kaufmann, 7th edition(W. H. Freeman)

observations of cosmic micrrwave background imply geometry of space time is flat
Observations of Cosmic Micrrwave Background Imply Geometry of Space-Time is Flat

Universe, Freedman and Kaufmann, 7th edition(W. H. Freeman)

concordance model of cosmology
“Concordance” Model of Cosmology

Universe, Freedman and Kaufmann, 7th edition(W. H. Freeman)

grbs can be used as standard candles
GRBs Can Be Used As “Standard Candles”

Measurement

of Epeak gives

Energy (and L)

Ghirlanda, Ghisellini, Lazzati, and Firmani (2004)

hubble diagram for type ia sne and grbs
Hubble Diagram for Type Ia SNe and GRBs
  • Before “standard candle”
  • calibration
  • After “standard candle”
  • calibration
grbs plus xrfs can provide new constraints on cosmology
GRBs Plus XRFs Can Provide New Constraints on Cosmology

GRBs

GRBsPlusXRFs

Ghirlanda, Ghisellini, Lazzati, and Firmani (2004)

grbs as probes of very high redshift universe
GRBs as Probes of Very High-Redshift Universe
  • Moment of “first light”
  • Star formation history of universe
  • Metallicity history of universe
  • Reionization history of universe

Lamb and Reichart (2000)

conclusions
Conclusions

Gamma-Ray Bursts:

  • were discovered serendipitously in 1967
  • occur at cosmological distances
  • are the most brilliant events in the universe
  • involve ultra-relativistic (v = 0.999 c) jets
  • provide important insights into nature

of core collapse supernovae

  • can provide new constraints on key

cosmological parameters

  • may be powerful probes of very high redshift

(z > 5) universe

  • are a phenomenon that remains mysterious

in many ways