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Prompt Emission Properties of X-ray Flashes and Gamma-ray Bursts. T. Sakamoto (CRESST/UMBC/GSFC). Contents. First BAT GRB catalog X-ray Flashes (XRFs) Prompt emission properties of XRFs (BATSE/BeppoSAX/HETE-2/Swift)? (4. X-ray flares) (5. X-ray afterglows of XRFs).

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Prompt Emission Properties of X-ray Flashes and Gamma-ray Bursts


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    1. Prompt Emission Properties of X-ray Flashes and Gamma-ray Bursts T. Sakamoto (CRESST/UMBC/GSFC) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    2. Contents • First BAT GRB catalog • X-ray Flashes (XRFs) • Prompt emission properties of XRFs • (BATSE/BeppoSAX/HETE-2/Swift)? • (4. X-ray flares) • (5. X-ray afterglows of XRFs) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    3. First BAT GRB catalog(BAT1 catalog)Sakamoto et al. ApJS, 175, 179 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    4. BAT GRB sky map • 237 GRBs (from GRB 041217 to GRB 070616) • - BAT event-by-event data analysis Galactic coordinate 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    5. T90/T50 (mask-weighted 15-350 keV) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    6. Hardness – T90 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    7. Time-averaged spectrum (PL fit) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    8. PL photon index vs. P(15-150 keV) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    9. Summary (I) • BAT is fine. • Detecting/localizing ~100 GRBs/yr. • Watching for z>7 and z<0.1 GRBs. • Watching for the next naked eye burst. 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    10. X-ray Flashes (XRFs) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    11. X-ray flashes and classical (long) GRBs : BeppoSAX/BATSE Classical gamma-ray burst (C-GRB) X-ray flash (XRF) X-ray band g-ray band (Heise et al. 2001) (in’t Zand et al. 1999) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    12. X-ray flashes and classical (long) GRBs : HETE-2 XRF 010213 GRB 030725 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    13. X-ray flashes and classical (long) GRBs: Swift BAT GRB 050401 XRF 050416A 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    14. “X-ray Flashes” 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    15. Empirical spectral models of GRBs Band function (Band et al. 1993) Eaexp (-E/E0) dN/dE E0 = Epeak / (2 + a) Eb Ebreak = (a - b) E0 Energy 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    16. Spectral parameters of GRBs (BATSE) Ep E-0.5 E nFn 200 – 300 keV Energy (BATSE spectral catalog, Preece et at. 2000) Band function Ep a 200 150 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 -3 -2 -1 0 1 1 2 3 4 log Ep [keV] (b ~ -2.5) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    17. X-Ray Flashes (XRFs) and X-ray rich GRBs(Ginga and BeppoSAX WFC) Ginga (Strohmayer et al. 1998) WFC / BATSE (Kippen et al. 2002) BATSE 4 (22 GRBs) 3 1000 2 Ep (keV) 1 100 0 -1 0 1 2 Number of events a 10 BATSE 4 Peak Flux P1024 (ph cm-2 s-1) 2 XRFs: Systematically low Epeak 0 1 2 3 4 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference log Ep [keV]

    18. Prompt emission properties of XRFs 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    19. Objective GRBs Spectral hardness Classify XRFs XRRs C-GRBs (X-ray flashes) (Classical GRBs) (X-ray-rich GRBs) XRRs C-GRBs XRRs C-GRBs XRFs XRFs 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    20. Classification of GRBs XRF XRR C-GRB log (SX / Sg) > 0 -0.5 < log (SX / Sg) ≤ 0 log (SX / Sg) ≤ -0.5 BeppoSAX “XRFs: Detected by Wide Field Camera (WFC), but not by Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM)” HETE-2 (Sakamoto et al. 2005) (Fluence in 2-30 keV : SX, Fluence in 30-400 keV : Sg) Swift/BAT ? 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    21. Epeak vs. fluence ratio XRF HETE GRB sample 10 SX / Sg 1 XRR C-GRB 0.1 1 1000 10 100 Epeak (keV) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    22. Classification of GRBs XRF XRR C-GRB log (SX / Sg) > 0 -0.5 < log (SX / Sg) ≤ 0 log (SX / Sg) ≤ -0.5 BeppoSAX “XRFs: Detected by Wide Field Camera (WFC), but not by Gamma-ray burst monitor (GRBM)” HETE-2 (Sakamoto et al. 2005) (Fluence in 2-30 keV : SX, Fluence in 30-400 keV : Sg) Swift/BAT (Sakamoto et al. 2008) a = -1, b = -2.5, Ep=100 keV a = -1, b = -2.5, Ep=30 keV 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    23. GRB sample 7 XRF 24 GRB 11 XRR 6 C-GRB BeppoSAX (D’Alessio et al. 2006, Amati et al. 2002) - Only a, b, Ep information 26 XRF 84 GRB 33 XRR 25 C-GRB HETE-2 (Sakamoto et al. 2005; Pelangeon et al. submitted A&A) 17 XRF 279 GRB 179 XRR 83 C-GRB Swift/BAT (Sakamoto et al. 2008+); 17 XRF 53 GRB 22 XRR 14 C-GRB Swift/BAT with Ep (Sakamoto et al. 2008+); BATSE (Kaneko et al. 2006) - Time-averaged best fit spectral parameters by BAND and COMP fit 0 XRF 181 GRB 26 XRR 155 C-GRB Total 568 GRBs (342 GRBs) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    24. List of XRFs I (BeppoSAX/HETE-2/Swift) XRF Mission Epeakobs [keV] AG z 971019 SAX 19 +/- 1 - - 990520 SAX 26 +/- 3 X - 990526 SAX 15 +/-14 - - 990704 SAX 9 (-7/+50) X - 000206 SAX 38 +/- 5 - - 000416 SAX 1.6 +/- 6.6 - - 010213 HETE-2 3.4 +- 0.4 - - 010225 HETE-2 32 (+27/-9) - - 011019 HETE-2 19 (+18/-9) - - 011130 HETE-2 < 4 - - 011212 HETE-2 NA - - 020317 HETE-2 28 (+13/-7) - - 020427 SAX 3 +/- 3 X - 020625 HETE-2 9 (+5/-3) - - 020903 HETE-2 3 +/- 1 O,R 0.25 021021 HETE-2 15 (+14/-7) - - 021104 HETE-2 28 (+17/-8) - - XRF Mission Epeakobs [keV]AGz 030416 HETE-2 3 (+1/-2) - - 030429 HETE-2 35 (+12/-8) O 2.65 030528 HETE-2 32 +/- 5 X,O 0.782 030723 HETE-2 < 8.9 X,O - 030823 HETE-2 27 (+7/-5) - - 030824 HETE-2 6.1 (+2/-4) - - 031109B HETE-2 38 (+28/-12) - - 031111B HETE-2 6 (+4/-5) - - 040423 HETE-2 30 (+5/-4) - - 040701 HETE-2 < 3.4 X - 040825B HETE-2 25 (+16/-8) - - 040912A HETE-2 14 (+3/-4) - - 040912B HETE-2 17 (+13/-13) X 1.563 040916 HETE-2 < 3.5 O - 050406 Swift 29 (+7/-12) X,O 050408 HETE-2 26 (+11/-7) X,O 1.2357 050416A Swift 17 (+6/-10) X,O,R 0.6535 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    25. List of XRFs II (BeppoSAX/HETE-2/Swift) XRF Mission Epeakobs [keV] AG z 050509 HETE-2 < 19 - - 050714B Swift 27 (+7/-18) X - 050819 Swift 22 (+6/-17) X - 050824 Swift < 19 X,O 0.83 060218 Swift 4.7 (-0.3/+0.4) X,O,R 0.0331 060219 Swift < 33 X - 060428B Swift 23 (+5/-12) X,O - 060512 Swift 23 (+8/-18) X,O 0.4428 060923B Swift < 27.6 X - 060926 Swift < 23 X,O 3.20 061218 Swift 19 (+11/-8) - - 070224 Swift < 35 X,O - 070714A Swift < 20 X - 070721A Swift < 30 X,O - 080218B Swift 20 (+5/-6) - - 080330 Swift < 24 X,O 1.51 080515 Swift 24 (+5/-5) X,O - Total: 51 XRFs XA : 24 XRFs OA : 17 XRFs z : 11 XRFs 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    26. Histogram of log[S(2-30 keV)/S(30-400 keV)] C-GRBs XRR XRF 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    27. Histogram of S(25-50 keV)/S(50-100 keV) C-GRBs XRR XRF Broad continuum in the fluence distribution 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    28. S(2-30 keV) vs. S(30-400 keV) C-GRBs/XRR XRR/XRF 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    29. S(2-30 keV) vs. S(30-400 keV) C-GRBs/XRR XRR/XRF 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    30. S(25-50 keV) vs. S(50-100 keV) C-GRBs/XRR XRR/XRF 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    31. S(25-50 keV) vs. S(50-100 keV) C-GRBs/XRR XRR/XRF 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    32. S(25-50 keV) vs. S(50-100 keV) Single distribution in the fluence-fluence plane C-GRBs/XRR XRR/XRF 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    33. Histogram of Epeakobs Broad Epeakobs distribution (from a few keV to a few MeV) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    34. Epeakobs vs. alpha 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    35. Epeakobs vs. alpha 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    36. Epeakobs vs. alpha 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    37. Epeakobs vs. alpha alpha ~ -1 for all GRBs 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    38. Epeakobs vs. beta 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    39. Epeakobs vs. beta 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    40. Epeakobs vs. beta 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    41. Epeakobs vs. beta beta ~ -2.5 for all GRBs 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    42. Epeakobs vs. S(2-400 keV) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    43. Epeakobs vs. S(2-400 keV) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    44. Epeakobs vs. S(15-150 keV) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    45. Epeakobs vs. S(15-150 keV) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    46. Epeakobs vs. S(15-150 keV) Epeakobs ~ S 0.5 Positive correlation between Epeakobs and the fluence 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    47. Redshift distributions 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    48. Epeaksrc distribution Broad Epeaksrc distribution 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    49. Epeak-Eiso relation Epeaksrc = 95 keV (Eiso/1052 ergs)0.5 (Amati 2006) 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference

    50. Re-classify XRFs at the rest frame XRF z Epeakobs Epeaksrc Re-classification 020930 0.25 2.6 3.3XRF 030429 2.65 35 128 C-GRBs 030528 0.782 32 57 XRR 040912B 1.563 17 44 XRR 050408 1.236 26 58 XRR 050416A0.654 17 28XRF 050824 0.83 <19 <34 XRF/XRR 060218 0.0331 4.7 4.9 XRF 060512 0.443 23 33 XRR 060926 3.20 <23 <97 XRR 080330 1.51 <24 <60 XRR Only three XRFs cab be classified as XRF at the rest frame. 2008 Nanjing GRB Conference