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Chapter 8 The Early Greeks. Lesson 3 Greek City-States. Objectives. Explain the relationship between Greece’s geography and the development of Greek city-states Trace the development of early forms of democracy and citizenship. Vocabulary. Polis – city state

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chapter 8 the early greeks

Chapter 8 The Early Greeks

Lesson 3 Greek City-States

objectives
Objectives
  • Explain the relationship between Greece’s geography and the development of Greek city-states
  • Trace the development of early forms of democracy and citizenship
vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Polis – city state
  • Acropolis – fort at the bottom of a hill
  • Agora – political center for each city-state
  • Oligarchy – rule by a few
  • Tyrant – someone who took control of a government by force and ruled alone
  • Democracy – rule by the people
  • Commerce – large scale trade
  • Colony – independent city-state tied to the homeland through religion and trade
rise of city states
Rise of City-States
  • By 750 BC, large settlements had grown into independent city-states such as Sparta, Athens, Argos and Corinth
  • Mountains and seas separated the city-states, causing them to develop independently
  • The English word “politics” comes from “polis”
  • In a polis all free people were citizens
  • The city-states developed in similar ways, most starting at the base of an acropolis
the rise of city states
The Rise of City- States
  • Natural barriers kept the city-states from uniting and led to their growing independently of each other
new ways of governing
New Ways of Governing
  • As city-states developed, oligarchies replaced the rule of kings
  • Then tyrants took over many city-states
  • By 500 BC early forms of democracy were beginning to replace tyrants in some city-states
  • What caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government?
quick question
Quick Question
  • What caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government?
    • Tyrants began to rule badly and the people overthrew them
what was greek society like under an oligarchy
What was Greek society like under an oligarchy?
  • Members of the oligarchy controlled most aspects of Greek society
  • However, they did nothing to improve life for the poor
commerce and colonies
Commerce and Colonies
  • By about 700 BC, the Greeks had become part of a growing commerce around the Mediterranean and beyond
  • As populations expanded, the city-states began to colonize areas beyond the Aegean
  • Trade among city-states: grain, wine, olive oil, wood, pottery, and metal such as iron and tools
  • The population began to rise leading to more competition for farmland
  • By 500 BC Greeks founded colonies in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and Asia Minor (see map 291)
quick question1
Quick Question
  • What economic and political advantages did colonization bring the Greeks?
answer
Answer
  • What caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government?
    • The economic advantages included new lands, resources, and expanded trade.
    • The political advantages included the spread of Greek power.
greek culture
Greek Culture
  • While the ancient Greeks identified with their own city-states, they also felt a strong connection with all Greeks due to their common language and shared culture
  • Developed alphabet; first letter is alpha, second is beta  “Alphabet”
  • Greeks used writing to keep records of business, trade, laws and taxes
  • They wrote down their history and beliefs too
  • Wrote down Homer’s epics the Iliad and the Odyssey
greek culture1
Greek Culture
  • Writing helped preserve their culture for later generations
  • From the heroes of the Trojan War is where the Greeks learned their strong codes of honor and courage
homer and hesiod
Homer and Hesiod
  • Much of what later Greeks learned about their religion came from Homer and Hesiod
  • Their writings taught Greeks about gods and their names, appearance, special skills and how to honor them
olympics
Olympics
  • To honor the god Zeus, Greeks competed in athletic festivals beginning 776 B.C.
  • Competed every 4 years became known as Olympic Games
  • Athletes from all city-states came to compete
  • Events included: wrestling, long jumping, discus, javelin throwing, boxing and running
  • Winners were crowned with wreathes of olive leaves and were treated as heroes in their city-states
fun fact
Fun Fact
  • Olympic games were a uniting force for the Greek city-states
  • Even when city-states were at war with each other, they laid down their weapons to compete in the games!
a new kind of warfare
A New Kind of Warfare
  • Greek city-states often fought over land and resources
  • Each city-state had a large, highly organized army composed of adult male citizens who were trained to fight in new formations
  • A man’s wealth and status determined his rank
  • Wealthiest men were the leaders
hoplite warfare
Hoplite Warfare
  • Turn to page 294 in in textbook
  • Describe the special formation in which the hoplite soldiers fought.
  • Why might it have been difficult to defeat an army of hoplites?
hoplite warfare1
Hoplite Warfare
  • Describe the special formation in which the hoplite soldiers fought.
    • The hoplite soldiers fought in a rectangular formation. They marched in long rows, fighting shoulder to shoulder with their shields nearly touching
  • Why might it have been difficult to defeat an army of hoplites?

They marched forward like a thick, moving wall. They were very organized and equipped

summary
Summary
  • Mountains separated the independent Greek city-states
  • City-states were active in commerce and developed new forms of warfare and government, including democracy
  • Across the city-states, the Greeks shared a strong cultural connection with one another