5 negotiating meaning in face to face interpreting an intercultural perspective
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5 - Negotiating Meaning in Face-to-Face Interpreting: An intercultural perspective. Ian Mason ( Heriot Watt University ) Sichuan University, October 2013. Interculturality. New book published in USA by Chinese-American Amy Chua (professor of law at Yale University):

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5 negotiating meaning in face to face interpreting an intercultural perspective

5- Negotiating Meaning in Face-to-Face Interpreting:An intercultural perspective

Ian Mason (Heriot Watt University)

Sichuan University, October 2013


Interculturality
Interculturality

  • New book published in USA by Chinese-American Amy Chua (professor of law at Yale University):

  • Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother


Interculturality1
Interculturality

  • Parenting styles:

    • US (promote freedom, creativity)

      versus

    • Chinese (promote discipline)

  • Reception in US:

    • Defence of long US tradition of creativity, innovation.

    • Fear: look at China’s economic success!


  • Interculturality2
    Interculturality

    • Chinese translation:

    • Parenting Guide by a Yale Law Professor: Raising Kids in America


    Interculturality3
    Interculturality

    • Reception in China:

      • ‘How do I get my kids into Harvard?’

    • Differing reader response to same text:

    • ‘Pre-text’: the assumptions we bring to our reading.

    • Different title also reflects culture.


    The co operative principle
    The Co-operative Principle

    • Ideal speaker and listener

    • No allowance for cultural differences

    • Anglo-centric?


    Cross cultural business exchange in english
    Cross-cultural business exchange in English

    A Hello, Mr X

    X Hello, Mr A

    A It’s been a long time since we saw each other last

    X Yes, too long, I’m afraid

    A Well, that depends on what you mean by a long time …

    • Stalpers (1987)


    Apparent flouting of maxims
    Apparent flouting of maxims

    • RELEVANCE: “It’s been a long time…”

      • Implicature: criticism – it’s been too long.

    • QUANTITY: “… I’m afraid”

      • Implicature: I regret (that you have taken so long?)

    • MANNER: “… that depends…”

      • Implicature: I don’t consider it long

        • Cross-cultural implicature

        • Assumptions not shared


    The dialogue interpreter
    The dialogue interpreter

    • at centre of cross-cultural exchanges

    • only participant with bi-cultural expertise

    • ability to make the implicit explicit


    House 2005 dimensions of cross cultural difference german english
    House (2005): Dimensions of cross-cultural difference (German – English)

    Directness ---------- Indirectness

    Orientation Orientation

    towards self ---------- towards Other

    Orientation Orientation

    towards Content ---------- towards Addressees

    Explicitness ---------- Implicitness

    Ad hoc Formulation ----------Verbal Routines


    Sources of intercultural difficulties
    Sources of intercultural difficulties (German – English)

    • Differences of language behaviour

    • Differences of non-verbal behaviour

    • attribution of motives to others’ behaviour

    • in-group/out-group bias

      Brislin (1980)


    British chinese business meeting spencer oatey xing in spencer oatey 2008
    British/Chinese business meeting (German – English)(Spencer-Oatey & Xing, in Spencer-Oatey 2008)

    • Language behaviour: ‘we’/’you’ focus

    • Non-verbal behaviour: (in)formality

    • Attribution: seating arrangement shows lack of respect

    • In/out-group: importance of personal contact: Tim, the China Sales Manager


    Spatial arrangement
    Spatial arrangement (German – English)


    In addition
    In addition: (German – English)

    • Differences of power and status

      • The interpreter’s role conflict:

      • The right to intervene?

      • The duty to intervene?


    Interpreter intervention in chinese english meeting
    Interpreter intervention in Chinese/English meeting (German – English)

    • British chairman makes welcome speech.

    • His team introduce themselves.

    • British chairman invites Chinese team to introduce themselves.

    • Head of Chinese team begins reply speech.

    • Interpreter interrupts: “No, just introduce yourselves… ” Spencer-Oatey & Xing 2008: 263


    Footing
    Footing (German – English)

    • “the alignments we take up to ourselves and the others present as expressed in the way we manage the production or reception of an utterance”

      E. Goffman (1981), p.128


    Footing production format
    Footing: production format (German – English)

    • Animator

    • Author

    • Principal


    An example distancing
    An example: distancing (German – English)

    Interpreter’s footing at a war-crimes trial

    • Need to interpret very distressing testimonies.

    • Need to cope with aggressive witnesses.


    An example distancing1
    An example: distancing (German – English)

    “Le présidentvousdemandesi…”

    [The judge is asking you whether…]

    “Die Zeuginantwortet…”

    [The witness replies that…]


    An example alignment
    An example: alignment (German – English)

    Therapy session at Vienna hospital (German/Serbian)

    T Now look, today we won’t sit down, today we’ll lie down, like in sleeping.

    I You will lie down here.

    T Hm?… Do you mind that?

    P Yes

    T Shall we do that?

    P Yes

    T Yes, good. Do you understand me? [to I] Tell him to/

    I Do you understand? The lady says you should lie down. Down there you should lie down, down there.

    Pochhacker & Kadric (1999)


    An example alignment1
    An example: alignment (German – English)

    T Do you understand me? [to I] Tell him to/

    I Do you understand? The lady says you should lie down…


    Intercultural pragmatics
    Intercultural pragmatics (German – English)

    An example: courtroom interpreting (Berk-Seligson 1988;1990)

    • Deferential politeness more common in Latin-American Spanish than in American English

    • L-A interpreter initiates cycle of politeness

    • Witnesses must address the court (i.e. the judge)

    • Witnesses often address the interpreter


    Interpreter s four options
    Interpreter’s four options (German – English)

    • interpret accurately (“Yes, Madam”)

    • interpret incorrectly (“Yes, Sir”)

    • raise the problem with the judge

    • drop the honorific


    Interpreter strategies
    Interpreter strategies (German – English)

    • Evidence that interpreters do ‘face work’, e.g. attenuation of bad news (redressive action):

    • Doctor: “your blood pressure is high”

    • Interpreter: “you have a little raised blood pressure”


    Interpreter strategies1
    Interpreter strategies (German – English)

    • Doctor: “You’re HIV-positive”

    • Interpreter: “The tests are positive”

      Clifford (2007)

    • Off-record strategy


    Interpreter strategies2
    Interpreter strategies (German – English)

    • Doctor: “Are you taking any other medication?”

    • Patient: “No… well, actually, I take sleeping pills but don’t tell him that!”

      • Culture 1: medicines by prescription only, for patient only.

      • Culture 2: medicines freely available, exchanged among friends and family.


    Interpreter strategies3
    Interpreter strategies (German – English)

    Angelelli (2012): pain-rating scales

    Nurse: Okay, from a scale from one to ten, ten being the worst pain, is it a ten? (…)

    Patient: Well. Yes. I have had it since this morning. It is there, I can feel it, not very strong but…

    Interp: How strong is not very strong, is it a 5, a 3 or a…

    Patient: More or less like a 5


    Footing and control
    Footing and control (German – English)

    Off.Did you look round for a job in Poland?

    Int.[Did you look for work? You looked for work and there wasn’t any?]

    Imm.[Yes]

    Int.Yes, he was looking for work but there was no work.Berriff 1997


    Institutional role
    Institutional Role (German – English)

    • TV interpreting

    • Immigration or medical interpreting

    • USA courtroom interpreting

      • The interpreter’s ability to control.


    Conclusion interpreter behaviour
    Conclusion: Interpreter behaviour (German – English)

    • Protection of own self/image

    • Assumptions about cultural assumptions of participants and about their interactional goals

    • Alignment (often but not always to the more powerful participant)

    • Face work

    • Institutional constraints on freedom