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Optionalbereich MAREM | Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen. Migration in Spain Understanding a Contradictory System Perspectives of different actors. Amanda Bailey, Sophie Reimertz, Eva Günzel, Christoph Winkler. Optionalbereich MAREM | Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen.

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slide1

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

Migration in Spain

Understandinga Contradictory System

Perspectives of different actors

Amanda Bailey, Sophie Reimertz, Eva Günzel, Christoph Winkler

slide2

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

Table of Content

  • Introduction: Migration Regime in Spain
  • 1.1 Ceuta and Melilla- Crisis
  • 2. Research Question
  • 2.1 Perspectives of different actors
  • 3. State of Art
  • 4. Data
  • 5. Research Results
  • 6. Conclusion
  • 7. References
slide3

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1. Introduction – Spain Facts

  • Area: 504.782 km²
  • 17 autonomous communities, 2 autonomous cities
  • (Ceuta and Melilla)
  • Population: 46.609.652 (2013)
  • Foreign Population: 5.118.112 (9,1 %)
  • Unemployment rate: 25,6 % (2013)
  • < 25 years of age: 54,4 % (2013)
  • EU entry in 1986; Member of the Schengen area since 1991
  • Governing party: Partido popular (christian-conservative, economic-liberalistic)
  • Prime minister: Mariano RajoyBrey (since 11/2011)

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Spain Facts | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1. Introduction – Migration History

  • Spain traditionally rather a country of emigration
  • 1905-1913: 1.5 million Spaniards emigrated to South American countries
  • 1960-1975: 2 million Spaniards migrated to more prosperous European countries
  • 1962-1979: 1,5 million emigrants returned to Spain for retirement
  • Change into a country of immigration
  • 1975: approximately 200.000 resident foreigners in Spain
  • 1999: foreign population reached 1 million
  • 2013: 5.118.112 resident foreigners
  • Asylum applications claimed in 2013
  • 4.500 applications (increase of 74% related to 2012)
  • 2.365 asylum decisions; 535 positive; 1.835 rejected (77%)
  •  Top-countries of origin: Mali, Syria, Algeria, Nigeria, Somalia

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Migration History | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1. Introduction – Migration Policy

  • Migration policy exclusively handled at the central state level
  •  cooperation between: Ministry of Employment and Social Security
  • Ministry of the Interior
  • Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  • Ministry of Justice
  • coordination through: Deputy General Directorate for Legal Affairs
  • Secretariat for Immigration and Emigration
  • generally Spain shows up a liberal attitude towards migrants and refugees
  • due to own migration experiences
  • no anti-migration right wing parties
  • nevertheless low rates of asylum applications and asylum recognition

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Migration Policy | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1. Introduction – Law and Asylum procedures

  • rights of asylum seekers and migrants defined by the Spanish constitution
  • 2 basic laws: Organic Law 2/2009 (Immigration Law)
  • Law 12/2009 (Asylum Law)
  •  reformed for compatibility with EU-legislation
  •  complemented by Regulations and Royal Decrees
  •  lacking regulations for Asylum law complicate interpretation
  • all asylum applications are exclusively treated by the asylum and refugee office (OAR)
  •  assistance of a joint-interministerial commission
  •  participation of UNHCR-Delegates (right on information, provide own opinion)
  • application process can last 6 month up to 2-3 years or even more
  • if application is accepted the autonomous communities of Spain are responsible for the assistance of integration

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Law andAsylumprocedures | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1. Introduction – Law andAsylumprocedures

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Law andAsylumprocedures| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1.1 Ceuta and Melilla – Asylum Crisis

Facts about Ceuta and Melilla

- Spanish exclaves of Ceuta & Melilla: in a political sense part of Europe, geographically part of Africa. They are not part of Schengen.

- Ceuta is only about 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) off the southern tip of Spanish mainland.

- At Borders: 30,000 People await opportunity to enter EU. Migrants regularly attempt to scale fences separating Ceuta & Melilla from Morocco.

=> High-tech-fence: Three rows of six-meter-high (about 20 feet) barbed-wire fencing “protect” these Spanish frontline cities. Infrared cameras monitor the fortifications and motion and noise detectors have been installed. (Cost: € 30 million)

- Together with Airport Barajas, Ceuta & Melilla are principle points of entry to Spain

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1.1 Introduction – Ceuta & Melilla | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1.1 Ceuta and Melilla – Asylum Crisis

-In 2013, over 4,300 people entered the two enclaves irregularly

-In Nov. 2013, Spain reinstalled barbed wire on the fence surrounding Melilla. (Had been removed in 2007, though it has been atop Ceuta fences since 2005.)

-> On March 18, 2014, some 500 migrants managed to climb over the fences at Melilla in the largest successful attempt in recent years.

-In reaction to recent events, Spanish government is planing to lawfully enable police officers to push back arriving groups and to further advance the fence technology. [ELPAÌS, March 2014]

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1.1 Introduction – Ceuta & Melilla | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1.1 Ceuta and Melilla – Asylum Crisis

Due torepeatedviolencetowardsexpelledasylumseekersbyMoroccanborderguards, Human Rights Watch warns Spain: all forciblereturnsof sub-SaharanmigrantstoMoroccoshouldbehalteduntilMoroccocanguaranteetheir humane treatment.

”Large scaleattemptstoclimboverthefences at CeutaandMelillapose genuine securityconcerns, and Spain has a righttosecureitsborders. But thesechallenges do not absolve Spain ofitsdutytorespect human rights, includingtherighttoseekasylumandtoprotectmigrantsagainst inhuman treatment.“

Judith Sunderland, senior Western Europe researcher , welche Institution?#hier quelle

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1.1 Introduction – Ceuta & Melilla | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

1.1 Ceuta and Melilla – Asylum Crisis

Life in Ceuta & Melilla: C.E.T.I.:Immigrantsareheld in the “Centro de Estancia Temporal de Inmigrantes”, thetemporaryholdingcenterforimmigrants.

Living ConditionsC.E.T.I.'s:coversbasicneedsforarrivinguntilsituationclarified

-3 meals a day, medicaltreatment, psychologicalsupport & Spanishlessons.

-roomsaresharedandcontainbedsfor 10

-The C.E.T.I. is an open accessspace – nobodyisforcedtostay.

-Impossibleto find work in CeutaorMelilla due toeconomiccrisis

-C.E.T.I. was designedtoaccommodatearound 500 peoplefor a temporarystay. In realityroomsarecrowded & someimmigrantsstayyears.

#Aus redcrossinterv.: Zahlen zur Überbelegung, evtl. auch woanders: wievieletatsächl dort

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1.1 Introduction – Ceuta & Melilla | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

2. Research Question

In a European comparison, many aspects of the Spanish asylum system seem to be exemplary, but on the other hand, the situation in Ceuta and Melilla is more than critical:

How can we explain the contradiction between image of Spanish asylum policy and the reality of the Ceuta and Melilla crisis?

Possible hypothesis/answers:

Spanish asylum policy is just „window dressing“ (talk), meanwhile reality of treating with asylum and refugee issues (action) always was different and still contrasts.

There is a mutual blockade of different collective actors at the local, regional, national and European level of whom some try to make the Ceuta/Melilla defense system more effective and others intend to make it coincident .

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 2. Research Question | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide13

2.1 Perspectivesof different actors

Who arethe different actors in theSpanishAsylum System?

- governement [Ministries]

- Police

- governement-relatedOrganizations

- Grass-Root-Organizations (NGOs)

- ReligiousOrganizations

→Assumption: Every organizationacts upon its

ownlogicandisrelated/referstodifferent levelsofactionandlegitimation:

local, regional, national and European

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 2.1 Perspectivesof different actors| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide14

2.2 Perspectives of different actors

Common European Asylum System

Spanish Asylum Law

Guardia Civil, PolicíaNacional FRONTEX

Grass Root NGOss

UNHCR, Cruz Roja

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 2.1 Perspectivesof different actors| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide15

3. StateoftheArt

  • Algeciras Acoge: Monográficoespecial. Frontera sureuropea:
  • Elmayordesniveleconómico del mundo. Históricapublicación de Algeciras
  • Acoge en la que se recoge la situación de la fronterasur en los años 2005- 2006.
  • Unarealidadyanálisis, queañosdespuéssigue -pordesgracia- absolutamente
  • vigente. https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BzEEXM-xHBCIeklpN2lvV0hUNWs/edit
  • CEAR: La situación de las personasrefugiadas en EspañaInforme 2014
  • http://www.cear.es/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Informe-CEAR-2014.pdf
  • [http://www.cear.es/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Resumen-Ejecutivo-Informe-2014-de-
  • CEAR.pdf]
  • Migreurop: En las fronteras de Europa.
  • -Controles, confinamientos, expulsiones. Informe 2009-2010
  • https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BzEEXM-xHBCIY0lvaXRqRm5UTHVRRG5XY2JKQ0lTUQ/
  • edit?pli=1

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 3. State ofthe Art | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide16

3. StateoftheArt

  • APDHA' Annual Publicationes:
  • DerechosHumanos en la Frontera Sur 2010-2013:
  • -Balance Migratorio 2012 (Rafael Lara, P. 6-26)
  • -Elescándalo del paquete „asilo“ (Catherine Teule, P. 27-32)
  • -Mellilla, paradigma de unasinhumanaspolíticasmigratorias
  • (Patricia Simon, P. 64-71)
  • -Seisaniosdespues de los acontecimimientos de Ceuta y Melilla:
  • ?quepasaconeltratamiento de los subsaharianos y la polítca de
  • migración en Marruecos? (Julie Turco, P. 31-48)
  • -Unióneuropea: fronterasinteriores y exteriores (JacopoCorsini, P.49-65)
  • -Ceuta y Melilla: elellimbo de los suenios (P. 59-72)

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 3. State ofthe Art | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide17

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

4. Data- Interviews in Spain

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Spain Facts | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide18

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research results

Guardia Civil, Policía Nacional FRONTEX

“Migraciónes un drama! Immigration is also a global issue that we all need to work on together in joint force. We all carry responsibility to this tragic topic.” (PolicíaNacional in Spain)

Two (contradictory) duties:

a) Protecting refugees and asylum seekers and guaranteeing the right of applying for asylum

b) Preventing the Spanish and therewith the European boarders of illegal mass immigration

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide19

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research results

Guardia Civil, Policía Nacional FRONTEX

  • Situation in CeutaandMelilla:
  • The Guardia CivilseesitselfunabletocopewithgrowingmigrationflowstowardsCeutaandMelilla
  • Reportedillegal Push-Backs
  • Requirementofsupportbyother EU members (FRONTEX)

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide20

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research Results

[UNHCR & Cruz Roja:] Organizations associated with the federal government

General Field of Work:

-To offer help and assistance to asylum seekers &

irregular migrants

-To secure access to the asylum process for those who need it

-To support government in decisions, give recommendations

-To inform potential asylum candidates of their rights and chances

-To work hand in hand with the government & all players involved

-Awareness-Raising, Research, Publications

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research Results

Government-associatedOrganization

Perspective, problemsseen, critique: In respecttoCeutaandMelilla: „Itsthemostunequalborder in theworld. [...]“

“Althoughthereis a primacyofprotectionofthecoast/border, its not clearwhocanenter, whoneedsprotectionand on whatbasisthisshouldbedecided. Howandwhereshouldthelinebedrawn? On whatbasis do wedrawthedistinctionsofwhoneedsprotection? Europe hastheresponsibilitytoprotectandtomakeasylumaccessible. [...]“

“Wecallformoreandbettertrainingsandpreparationofpolicemenattheborders. Theyshouldbeenabledtodifferentiate, toactappropiatleyaccordingto a situationandtoknowthe legal aspectof different cases...“

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research Results

“We are worried about whats happening in Ceuta and Melilla,

it’s a cynical situation: On the one hand we speak about refugee

and asylum

rights, but what Europe and Spain are actually trying to do, is

to restrict and retain

immigration. This is against the international and

European law and against our Law for Foreigners and Asylum.

We have to respect human

rights. We have to establish European laws which respect human

rights. In the context

of the economic crisis, of populism, xenophobia, and of racism;

we need a European answer and democratic concept.”

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide23

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research Results

Government-associated Organization

Perspective, problems seen, critique:about NGO's in Spain: „In comparison to other countries Spain has a relatively small presence of NGOs defending the right of asylum for applicants“

-“The Majority of NGO's only functions through public and private funding. Basically, jobs and work that are steady are those of governmental institutions. NGO's work is always dependent on their instable financial situation.“

=> „The governmental centers are better centers. In general. With better service and stability. People who work there have a regular and stable budget. They work with more consistency, higher stability and reliability.“

-Positive about NGOs: „Smaller, more personal, more flexible. Able to detect and care for special situations and needs better, often more continuously. (In specific cases, the NGOs are more adequate.)“[All Quotes for this slide taken from S008]

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research Results

“thesystemoffences in CeutaandMelillacurrentlyhastheeffectthatonlythosewhocanclimbthefenceshavetheopportunityofentering. Mechanismhavetobeconsidered so thatpeoplecanbeidentifiedandtoworkagainstthisnaturalselectionhappeningnow.”

“The topicisbeingdiscussed in themedia. But nobodyistacklingtheissueof international protectionandthenecessitiesofthepeopleconcerned. In thecaseofhavingtoreturnpeopletotheircountryoforigin, thelegislationhastobefollowed. ThishastobeconformwiththeSpanishlawforforeigners, whichestablishessomemechanisms/[safety] guaranteesforreturningpeopletotheir countries.”

The politics [in CeutaandMelilla] areworrisome. Asylumeligiblepeoplewon'tapplyforasylum in thecentersdesignatedforthisbecausetheyknowtheywouldbe stuck in thesecitiesfor an undefinedamountof time whiletheothersmakeittotheSpanishpeninsulabitbybit. Oncetheyreachthepeninsulatheycangotoother countries orapplyforasylum in Spain. Thisisinterestingtokeep in mindbecauseitchangesthepanorama [bigpicture] oftheprotection/asylumsystem in Spain. [Quotesfrom: S008]

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide25

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research Results

Grass Root Organisations

Accem, Acoge, Cear etc.

  • Position: Help, awareness raising, Blaming/Shaming
  • “the situation for applicants is getting worse“
  • Perspective: Critique of the status quo
      • Critique of centralized asylum system in Spain
      • Critique of Detention Policy in Spain
  • Critique of policy Ceuta/Melilla

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide26

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

5. Research Results

Grass Root Organisations

Accem, Acoge, Cear etc.

  • Chances:
  • „We need more flexibility“
  • More flexible asylum system
  • Better opportunities for immigrants to get stay permits
  • Shorter time frame and simplification of asylum procedure
  • Efficient and short collaboration btw. the European States

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

slide27

Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

6. Conclusion

  • NGOs, Government-related OGs and executive authorities differ in their perceived responsibilities etc##hierwiederexplizier auf thesen von vornFolie 12 beziehen## within the Spanish Asylum system:
  • NGOs accuse executive authorities of violating human rights and shutting down the boarders
  • NGOs are accused of being inefficient as they have less impact on decision- making processes
  • ______________________________________________________________________
  • Consensus about actual situation in Ceuta and Melilla:
  • Spain is unable to cope with the great rush of migrants at the Spanish enclaves
  • Enhanced support by other EU members is indispensable
  • The asylum system (in Ceuta and Melilla) does not work efficiently
  • Decentralization of the asylum procedure and a simplified application process is needed

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 6. Conclusion| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

7. References

Interviews

S002 CEAR_Sevilla_07.03.2014

S003 CEAR (Psy.)_Sevilla_13.03.2014

S004 AcogeAndalucíaAlgeciras_Algeciras_11.03.2014

S007 Cruz Roja_Madrid_03.03.2014

S008 ACNUR_Madrid_03.03.2014

S010 PolicíaNacional_Tarifa_11.03.2014

S011 AcogeAndalucía Sevilla_Sevilla_03.03.2014

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 7. References| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

7. References

InstitutoNacional de Estadistica (2013): Cifras de Población a 1 de julio de 2013.

Online: http://www.ine.es/prensa/np822.pdf , checked 18.06.2014.

UNHCR (2013): Asylum Trends 2013 – Levels and Trends in industrialized countries.

Online: http://www.unhcr.org/5329b15a9.html , checked 18.06.2014.

Unemploymentrate

Online: http://www.datosmacro.com/paro/espana?dr=2014-03 , checked 18.06.2014.

European Commission (2012): Country Factsheet: Spain 2012.

Online: http://extranjeros.empleo.gob.es/es/redeuropeamigracion/Informe_Anual_Politicas_Inmigracion_Asilo/country_factsheet_spain_2012_en_400004.pdf , checked 19.06.2014.

EDAL (2014): EDAL Country Overview – Spain.

Online: http://www.asylumlawdatabase.eu/en/content/edal-country-overview-spain, checked 22.06.2014.

Kreienbrink, A. (2010): Spanien – Vom Auswanderungs- zum Einwanderungsland.

Online: http://www.bpb.de/gesellschaft/migration/laenderprofile/57893/migrationsgeschichte , checked 19.06.2014

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 7. References| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

7. References

Derechoshumanos en la fronterasur 2013. APDHA

Elministroannuncia „mallasantitrepa“ para las fronteras de Ceuta y Melilla.

EL PAÍS, 6. de Marzo de 2014

Interiorpresentacomo „cuestión de Estado“ la crisis de Ceuta y Melilla.

EL PAÍS, 7. de Marzo de 2014

http://www.zeit.de/gesellschaft/zeitgeschehen/2014-02/Fluechtlinge-marokko-spanien-ceuta-melilla Zeit-Artikel vom 17. Februar 2014

http://www.migreurop.org/article2481.html?lang=fr26 février 2014

http://www.migreurop.org/article1241.html?lang=fr(Trad. du français, Jessica Edwards), Migreurop, 12 octobre2005

Report: Spain: Accountability urged for ‘appalling’ migrant deaths in Ceuta. Amnesty International (14.02.2014)

Online http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/spain-accountability-urged-appalling-migrant-deaths-ceuta-2014-02-14, checked: 24.06.2014

MAREM-project | SPAIN | 7. References| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

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Optionalbereich

MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

  • Thankyouforyourkindattention !
  • The „Spain-Group“
  • Amanda Bailey
  • Eva Günzel
  • Sophie Reimertz
  • Christoph Winkler