International Programme : Coping with Inclusion in Primary Schools April 16-27, 2007. The Education System in Spain. Summary. 1. Spanish Education System 1.1.Principles and Legislation of the Educational System 1. 2. Structure of the Educational System
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1.1.Principles and Legislation of theEducationalSystem
1. 2. Structure of theEducationalSystem
1.3. Calendars and SchoolSchedules
1.4. General Teaching
The legislative framework that governs the Spanish educational system is formed by the Spanish Constitution (1978) and four constitutional laws that develop the principles and rights established in it:
This level begins whith the birth and finishes at the age of 6 years old, There are two parts: the first one till the age of 3 and the second one till the age of 6.
With respect to the methodology, the regulation that develops the law marks some principles based on the elaborate constructivists learning theories of Piaget, Vigotsky and Ausubel, among others, but it establishes no specific method, since the educational team of each centre must decide what strategies and what pedagogical methods are the most adequate.
The evaluation in the children education should be global, continuous and formative.
It comprises six school years, from the age of six to the age of 12. There are
three levels or cycles, each cycle comprises two school years.
The evaluation of the learning processes should be global, continuous and formative.
The promotion from a cycle to another will be done provided that the students must have reached the corresponding objectives.
Religion subjet matter is elective for the students in all the school centres. For those that, by decision of their parents, don’t choose that subject, other activities should be organized about analysis and reflection of different aspects of the cultural and social life.
Comprises four academic school years, from 12 to 16 years old.
The students that reach all the objectives of this phase receive the title of Graduate in Secondary Education that authorizes the development of a degree or to the specific vocational training of medium level.
For those students who don’t achieve the aim, specific programs of social guarantee can be organized, in order to provide them a professional and basic formation that allows them to be incorporated to the active life or to continue their studies.
The teachings in secondary education are structured in modalities, some more professional than others, so that each student can elect his own formative itinerary in function of his capacities and professional and academic interests. There are four modalities: arts, natural and health sciences, liberal arts and social sciences, and technology.
The methodological orientation of the processes of teaching and learning in the degree tries to favour the capacity of the student to learn by himself, to work in group and to apply the appropriate methods of investigation.
The evaluation is continuous. It is carried out by subjects and in relation
to the educational objectives and the criteria of evaluation established in
the own curriculum of each educational administration.
The specific vocational training constitutes the strictly professional formation. There are two degrees: the vocational training of medium degree and the vocational training of upper degree.
The first one of them is inserted immediately after the obligatory secondary education and it is necessary to be in possession of the title of Graduate in Secondary Education.
The students that go though the teachings of specific vocational training of medium degree and of degree will receive, respectively, the title of Technician and of Upper Technician of the corresponding profession.
The concept of special educational needs is related to the idea of diversity of the students and it is defined as the assembly of supports and adaptations that the student will bearly carried out his processes of development and learning in the educational system in ordinary centres.
The schooling differentiated in units or central specific of special education only will be carry out when the needs of the student cannot be attended in an ordinary educational centre. This situation will be revised periodically, so that the access of the students to a state of greater integration can be favoured, provided it is possible.
Attention to the students with special educational needs
The new law (LOE) establishes the concept of ‘pupils with specific educational needs’, which comprises diferent types of pupils.
Pupils who require compensatory education.
Pupils Whit difficulties in education..
Pupils with special educational needs: pupils with physical, psychical, sensorial disabilities or with serious personality or conduct disorders.
Specials needs in education must be detected as soon as posible and provide the earlier atenttion to make possible the bests possibilities of inclusion.
The centres of children education, are suitable places to make students with special educational needs develop their maximum possibilities.
With respect to the objectives these students should obtain are the same as for the remainder of their companions, nevertheless, the goals should be more specific and the method more individualized according to the development and capacity of each student.
Both in mainstream and in the specific Special Education schools, the methodological assistance lent to these pupils must comply with the educational principles established for the school-age population in general:
Teachings of Special State:
The system isadapting to the Bologna Process Model (undergraduate/postgraduate training)
Universities offer undergraduate training at:
Universities also offer Postgraduate Training Programmes in different areas of expertise (courses of professional specialization; continuous education, etc) at Postgraduate and Master Level.
Antonia de la Torre Rísquez
Mª Soledad Ruiz Pérez
Manuela Fernández Gómez
Carolina Angela Muñoz Lepe
Aurora Arrebola Macías