REDUPRE CONCLUDING WORKSHOP 27- 28 May 2013 Maribor, Slovenia Double discrimination towards Roma/Sinti women in Italy: juridical and social perspective Prof. AntoniettaPiacquadio International Institute for High Legal and Economic Studies for Development (IGES), Gorizia, Italy
Relationship between ethnicity and gender is particularly complex for Roma women both, within their communities and in relations with the outside world. • Confronted outside of their own communities with an extremely hostile environment, Roma and Sinti women come to accept the role that is assigned to them by the traditional culture, perceived as threatened. • The discrimination to which they are subject, therefore, assumes a valence even more accentuated and multifactorial, resulting from the simultaneous presence of elements linked to ethnic affiliation and gender discrimination.
The magnitude of these phenomena of discrimination against Roma women can be analyzed in various areas, including the access to education, the access to the labor market, and the access to health services
the low level of education of Roma women is not only related to a form of discrimination outside the community, as in particular, the rules and traditions of many communities that require girls to leave school early - no later than age 12 - to assume the traditional roles within the community, early marriage, caring for relatives the access to education, the access to the labor market, Access to the labor market, in turn, is affected by the very low level of education of women, from the frequent pregnancies and the machismo of many communities which means that families do not allow women to take jobs as alternatives to those they carry out inside the community • and the access to health services Concerning access to health services the analysis conducted during the project REDUPRE, highlighted the spread of prejudice among health care or paramedical: strong prejudices still persist among healthcare professionals from the customs, traditions and model of the fertility of Roma women.
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IS MORE ACCENTUATED SEEMS TO LIE PRECISELY WITHIN ROMA COMMUNITIES • Roma/Sinti girls assume roles reserved for adult women at the age of 11 years: at this age in many communities is expected to marry and have several children • Havingno legalforce, thesemarriagesleavecompletelydevoidofrights and support the girls in case ofseparation, thisisespeciallydramaticifthere are children • a stronglypatriarchalstructure, in manycases, leadsto the subordinationof women and the social acceptanceofdomesticviolenceas a natural part of the family dynamic
In Italy, thereis a strong dependencyof Roma immigrants women from the residence permitoftheirownhusband. The tighteningof the eligibilityrequirementsforresidency and work permitshasaffectedespecially the non-EUimmigrantwomen Even the lawrelatingtoeligibilityfor social benefitsislinkedpermanent residence and citizenship. The stay in Italy, in fact, depends on obtaining a work permit and temporary stay isrenewedonlyif the personis in possessionofanemploymentcontract.