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Japanese Lesson StudyOrigin and Some Cases ISODA, Masami Institute of Education University of Tsukuba
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Aim and Contents • The Aim of this lecture is to know what Lesson Study is, how Japanese developed it and what kinds of system support the Study. • Lesson Study, or developmental study way of Japanese teaching method by teachers, as the reform wave from Japan to the world • An example of study lesson at the open school research lesson forum in the Attached Elementary School of the Univ. of Tsukuba • The origin of Japanese Lesson Study • The behind system of Lesson Study • An Example of the system in the case of the Attached Junior High School of the Univ. of Tsukuba • Final Remark ; The Study enable each teacher to actualize him/herself in his/her school life.
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Focus on Japanese Lesson from WW or US point of view • TIMSS Videotape Study • “Before it’s too late” A Reportto the Nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for 21st Century Goal 1: Establish an ongoing system to improve the quality of mathematics and science teaching in grade K-12. Goal 2: Increase significantly the number of mathematics and science teachers and improve the quality of their preparation. Goal 3: Improve the working environment and make the teaching profession more attractive for K-12 mathematics and science teachers.
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba From the Videotape Studyin“Before it’s too late” • The basic teaching style in American mathematics classrooms remains essentially what it was two generations ago. • In Japan, by contrast, closely supervised, collaborative work among students is the norm. • Teachers begin by presenting students with a mathematics problememploying principles they have not yet learned. • They then work alone or in small groups to devise a solution. • After a few minutes, students are called on to present their answers; the whole class works through the problems and solutions, uncovering the related mathematical concepts and reasoning. • The students learn through reasoned discovery, not lecture alone; Problem Solving Lesson Style in Japanese
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Why Japanese teacher can do?in“Before it’s too late” • Japanese approach is a natural outgrowth of the teaching culture in Japan, which accords teachers not only abundant time for preparation, but also for collaborative lesson planning. (Because of it’s a culture, it looks overprize for Japanese!) • Fully 99% of all elementary teachers and 50% of all middle school teachers participate in lesson study groups that meet for two to five hours per week. (It’s must be counted many kinds of meeting time, or after school, out of working time, meeting. Most of them is two hours or so! ) • The debilitating professional isolation of U.S. teachers stands in stark contrast to this pattern. • A core conclusion from the videotape research:“The key to long-term improvement [in teaching] is to figure out how to generate, accumulate, and share professional knowledge.”
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Open Forum; In the case of Attached Elementary SchoolIn the process of lesson study, teachers propose their lessons to their school or other school teachers for presenting the new ways or ideas of teaching. • Study Lesson is most important part of Lesson Study because teachers strongly believe that the lesson is only way to prove the evidence of their study.
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Open Forum;Teachers attend the study lessons, open forum, for knowing the newest research trends of lesson study. • In the case of Attached Elementary School
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Open Forums is the part of the experimental study for developing curriculum and teaching methods by teachers. • Outline of Study Lesson; • Observation (Presentation), Discussion, Discourse (comments from invited expert)
Cherysanthemun & Paulownia Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Origin of Japanese Lesson Study; Meiji Period (1868 - 1912) • In 1868, the emperor came back after the Tokugawa Shogun, army, government and the constitutional monarchy had begun with western civilization. • Before Meiji Period, Japanese had own education system for ordinary people called Terakoya (= kids-school-in-temple). The literacy rate at 1868 was 43% in the case of males and 10% in females. • Western style school system began in 1872 and the first normal school in Japan, Tokyo Normal School (now, Univ. of Tsukuba), was funded by the emperor. • At the beginning of new system, the knowledge of western scientific subjects was introduced by western teachers (such as John Perry) who were employed by Japanese Government and Japanese students learned it based on Japanese - Chinese disciplinary education.
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba What is he doing? Embeded Several Traditions; Before MeijiEX. Try one’s skill against a member of the same or another school; Competition in classroom, school and enter schools. Observation meeting of each others game.
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba An Origin in MeijiTokyo Normal School and its Attached School • Observing Lessons as a student; • Western teachers (around 1870) presented the lecture style for teaching scientific subject and students learned unknown teaching style at the same time as they learned subject matter. • Pestalozzi Method; • Takamine, principal of TNS later, had studied the teaching method of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi at NY in US and introduced the method to Japan through TNS. • The Attached School teachers as system makers; • The attached school teachers adapted the method, trained other school teachers and published the teaching method book. In the first teaching methods textbook (1883) for normal schools in Japan, written by the attached elementary school teachers in TNS, the way of critically observing teaching practice and the obligation of critical comment was already described as one of most important teaching content at all of normal schools.
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Its Development;Taisyo(1912-1925), Syowa(1925-1989) • Taisyo; Autonomous Development • Teachers tried to getting their autonomy based on John Dewey • Problem Posing and Solving Lesson Style began to develop. • Japan Society of Mathematical Education funded(1919) • Syowa; fromStatism to Democracy • Before WWII, Japanese teacher education system and methods of teaching was entire structured. • After WWII, US occupation tried to break the system and introduce US style teacher education system and teaching method which was also based on Dewey but far from already Japanese had implemented. • Japanese teacher assimilate US style and teachers’ autonomous democracy exploded. • In 1970s and 1980s, Lesson Study had effloresced. • Heisei (1989-); lost person who bear. • Occurred extreme shortage of teachers job offer.
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba The System, its behind. • Official System; related with promotion in school system • Teacher has obligation to improve his/her lesson and the study is included in his/her job. • Teachers promotion is with in the competence of principal and the board of education. • Principal supports teachers’ study through managing his/her school such as setting lesson studies in the school year and endorse teachers’ outwork . Some active principals usually set his/her school open forum once in three years or so to show the evidence of his school teachers well developed and influence the movement to other schools. • Official teachers’ societies managed by teachers and principals to enhance teachers’ studies. • In each school district, board of education sets various recurrent courses in working hours. • Voluntary System; related with self-actualization • Teacher usually finds his/her life worth if students growing well, thus he/she wants to do better mathematically teaching practice for each student’s growing in his/her classroom and school. • Teacher wants to identify, self-actualize in the teachers’ society and promote in the age. • Some teachers want to enhance special reform based on private group or society. • Commercial System; related with the socialization of their product • Publishers support lesson study to publish teachers’ practice. Engaging teachers have a lot of chance to publish their best practice and could feel ownership in reform movement. • Academic System; related with administrative and scientific implementation • Supervisor supports teachers’ practice based on the view from the Ministry of Education • Didactic researcher supports teachers based on his/her scientific interest. • Teachers join supervisor and researchers depending on what they want but any cases, he/her knows that evidence is not on the paper but in his/her classroom students and on his/her practice.
Math.Edu. Univ.of Tsukuba Beginners began to learn how to work eg. participate the lesson study Beginners of directorate began to learn how to manage his/her school and support teachers. Developed directorates managed his/her school well and enhance the study Developed well teachers led the lesson study and try to develop and carry their study group. Final Remark;For Professional Development • Lesson Study supports the growth of teacher’s career. • It works well if teacher actualizes him/herself through the study and finds the worth of living in his/her school life.