Lesson Study Day 1 Summer 2012 Workshop
History • FIMSS 1967 • SIMS 1980 • TIMSS 1995 Math Results of 4th and 8th graders International average 529, 513 US 545, 500 Singapore 625, 643 Japan 597, 605
History continued • TIMSS-R 1999 Math Results of 8th graders international average 487 US 502 Singapore 604
TIMSS Released Items • Science: The weathering of rocks can be caused by both physical and chemical processes. Write down one physical process and one chemical process. Explain how each can cause the weathering of rocks. • Science: Look at the list of organisms (plants and animals) below. They all live in the Neritic Zone of the ocean. [Six organisms are listed with a short description of each] Complete the food web on the chart below to include all the organisms listed in the table.
TIMSS Released Items • Math: [A 2cm x 8cm rectangle is shown.] On the grid provided, draw a rectangle whose length is three-fourths the length of the rectangle given, and whose width is two and one-half times the width of the rectangle given. Label the length and width of the new rectangle in cm on the figure.
TIMSS VIDEOTAPE STUDY • U.S., Japan, and Germany • CLIPS www.TIMSSvideo.com • What did you observe about the US lesson? the Japanese lesson? • How might these differences translate to higher levels of student achievement?
PRIMARY FINDINGS of the TIMSS Videotape Study • Recorded by the researchers in the book The Teaching Gap, James Stigler & James Hiebert, 1999 • “…American mathematics teaching is extremely limited, focused…on a very narrow band of procedural skills” Other nations “teach mathematics in a deeper way, teaching for conceptual understanding.”
PRIMARY FINDINGS of the TIMSS Videotape Study continued • The U.S. lacks a comprehensive plan for delivering quality professional development for teachers • There is “[no] coherent system of professional development for teachers of mathematics.” - Barbara Reys
TIMSS Quotes “Less emphasis is needed on computation, because of the advent of calculators and an the need for an emphasis on strong understanding.” “The United States seems to either have way too much focus on…test prep, [and ] not enough focus on… thinking.” “Japanese teachers think that learning the process of thinking is the most important thing to learn in the classroom.” “US classrooms are more focused on the right answers and whether or not a student can take a specific formula, apply the formula to a problem, and find the correct answer. The focus in [other some other countries] is most importantly how to find that answer.”
Liping Ma • Comparison of Chinese vs. U.S. teachers • Problem #3: 1 ¾ ÷ ½ perform computation and write story • Approx. 1/3 of U.S. teachers performed the calculation correctly; all Chinese teachers did • No U.S. teachers could give a story; most Chinese teachers could
PISA • PISA assesses Mathematical Literacy: Mathematics literacy is the capacity to identify, understand and engage in mathematics, and to make well-founded judgments about the role that mathematics plays in an individual's current and future private life, occupational life, social life with peers and relatives, and life as a constructive, concerned and reflective citizen. (OECD – PISA) • Students need to bring to bear mathematical skills in situations which are not presented in mathematical terms.
2009 PISA Results • 2009 Math Results international average 496 US 487 Shanghai China 600 Korea 546 Japan 529
PISA Sample Problem • To complete one set of bookshelves a carpenter needs the following components: • 4 long wooden panels, • 6 short wooden panels, • 12 small clips, • 2 large clips and • 14 screws. • The carpenter has in stock 26 long wooden panels, 33 short wooden panels, 200 small clips, 20 large clips and 510 screws. • How many sets of bookshelves can the carpenter make?
Note: • Shift in what matters: Skills Problem-solving Procedures Critical thinking Communication Application
What does this shift look like in practice? • Some examples…
Promoting Higher-order Skills Challenge students with • Visual problems NAEP Question: Sally walks 5 blocks north, turns left and walks 2 blocks west. She turns left, what direction is she facing?
Promoting Higher-order skills Challenge students with • Open-ended problems John has 34 marbles, Bill has 27 marbles and Sue has 23 marbles. How many marbles do they have altogether? vs. John has 34 marbles, Bill has 27 marbles and Sue has 23 marbles. Write and solve as many problems as you can using this information.
Promoting Higher-order skills Challenge students with • Critical Thinking problems A snail is at the bottom of a 10-foot well. Every day he crawls up 3 feet but at night slips down 2 feet. How many days will it take for him to get out of the well?
What can assist us in making this shift: Skills Problem-solving Procedures Critical thinking Communication Application
Japanese-Style Lesson Study • Lesson Study is a form of classroom-embedded professional development. collaboration + action research = LS • Emphasis on developing higher-order skills to improve achievement • For years, has been a respected form of PD on east and west coasts in the U.S. • Loras was a pioneer in its use in the Midwest
A sample Lesson Plan • http://www.lessonresearch.net/Seatlessonplan.pdf
Primary Components of Lesson Study • Teach Research Lesson
What data? • Focus is on the students their connections, observations their misconceptions • What changes to the lesson might improve student understanding?
Primary Components of Lesson Study • Reflect
Video • Makoto Yoshida and Clea Fernandez, Global Education Resources
Activities to Improve Instruction • Rank the four activities below according to how often you engage in them. 1 = most often, 2 = next most often, etc Plan lessons collaboratively Plan lessons alone Watch other teachers teach and discuss your observations Curricular activities: write or choose curriculum, align with standards
Warning! • Lesson Study is not a “quick fix.”
How Many Seats? We have a long skinny room and triangle tables that we need to arrange in a row with their edges touching, as shown. Each side can hold one “seat,” shown with a circle. Can patterns help us find an easy to answer the question: How many seats can fit around a row of triangle tables?
How Many Seats? • Pretend you are one of your students. • Your challenge: How many seats can fit around a row of triangle tables?
How Many Seats? • There are two patterns to be observed: +1 pattern going vertically +2 pattern going horizontally • Which is more apparent? • Which is more useful?