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The Classification of this Brief is UNCLASSIFIED. UUV Navigation Aid. Paul T. Jurcsak Mikel, Inc. 1144 Tenth Ave, Suite 200 Honolulu, HI 96816. MIKEL Inc- Who We Are. We are experts in the development, prototyping and testing of underwater technology and systems.

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uuv navigation aid

The Classification of this Brief is UNCLASSIFIED

UUV Navigation Aid

Paul T. Jurcsak

Mikel, Inc.

1144 Tenth Ave, Suite 200

Honolulu, HI 96816

mikel inc who we are
MIKEL Inc- Who We Are

We are experts in the development, prototyping and testing of underwater technology and systems.

Submarine combat systems R&D

Acoustic detection, tracking and localization/positioning

Target motion analysis

Tactical exercise performance analysis

We are also focused on creating training tools to make Navy operators proficient in their use of the submarine combat system.

Automated performance measurement/analysis systems

Woman - Owned, Small Business w/offices in MA, RI and HI

Affiliated with Universities

GSA and Seaport-E schedules

Cleared Employees and Facility

4/2/2014

2

acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
  • This Work was Sponsored by the National Defense Center of Excellence for Research in Ocean Sciences (CEROS) Under a Cooperative Agreement With the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency (DARPA)
agenda
Agenda
  • Submerged Vehicle Positioning & Navigation Aid
  • Range-Only Target Positioning Algorithms
    • Single Beacon
    • Single or Multiple Receive Hydrophones
  • At-Sea Test Results
  • Other Applications
    • Sparsely Populated Tracking System (Multiple Beacons)
slide6

UUV Navigation Aid

  • Submerged vehicle position estimate using a single beacon
  • - Single or multiple UUVs
  • - Waypoint position update
  • Enabled beacon emits coded pings for a defined period of time
  • UUV passively measures beacon ping time of arrival & onboard heading, speed through water and depth

4/2/2014

6

concept of operations
Concept of Operations
  • Pre-installed beacon is activated by acoustic command & synchronized for time of emission (TOE) by undersea vehicle
    • Beacon position surveyed to GPS accuracy
    • Activated beacon emits a sequence of coded pings at precise time intervals
    • No vehicle emissions after activating beacon
  • Subsequent beacon pings detected by undersea vehicle use time of arrival (TOA) to measure the beacon to vehicle slant range (SR)
    • SR = C(TOA – TOE)
  • Range-only motion analysis (ROMA) algorithms are used to determine UUV position relative to the beacon
    • Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)
    • Initialize EKF with Minimum Cost Function Optimization algorithm
bottom mounted beacon transponder
Battery powered for 240 hours of operation over two years

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) ranging signal

Accurate TOA

Shallow or deep water capability

Beacon mode

Synchronized ping once every 30 seconds for 4 hrs

Transponder mode

Respond with same code as interrogation plus a coded transponder ID

Power Supply

Command Receiver

& Coded Signal

Transmitter

Transducer

Beacon

Bottom Mounted Beacon/Transponder
slide9

UUV Navigation Aid Data Flow

Position & ocean

current estimate

X, Y, Vcx , Vcy

  • On Board Vehicle Data
    • Speed through water
    • Heading
    • Depth

Extended Kalman

Filter (EKF)

Host Computer (COTS PC for Prototype)

Initialize

State

Vector

TOE

TOA

Signal Processor

Beacon Command

Generator

Minimum Cost Function

Beacon

Hydrophone interface

UUV Projector

UUV

hydrophone

slide10

Submarine Tracking System

Data Flow

  • On Board Vehicle Data
    • Speed through water
    • Heading
    • Depth

Position & ocean

current estimate

X, Y, Vcx , Vcy

Personal Computer

Extended Kalman

Filter (EKF)

Initialize

State

Vector

TOE

Spherical Known Depth

or

Minimum Cost Function

TOA

Signal Processor

Beacon Command

Generator

Hydrophone interface

UQC

Beacon

Submarine

hydrophones

EKF Estimates Position by Processing Ranges from 1 or more Organic Hydrophones

onboard processing

300

250

100’s usec of timing accuracy

200

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

1000

0

200

400

600

800

Auto Correlation

Onboard Processing
  • Signal & data processing algorithms hosted on carry on COTS PC
    • Can be hosted on undersea vehicle computer
    • Minimal processing requirements
  • Sends DSSS coded beacon commands via a UQC interface
  • Receiver capable of processing multiple coded beacon signals simultaneously
    • CDMA for multiple beacons

8 channel A/D

submarine organic sensors
Submarine Organic Sensors

+z

+x

DT-592

DT 592 quadrants summed emulating a UUV with a single

omni-directional hydrophone receiver

phase 1 submarine test emulates uuv using a single hydrophone real time position estimates

GPS Track

EKF Acoustic Track

Phase 1 Submarine TestEmulates UUV using a single hydrophonereal time position estimates

Reacquire detection

Phase 1Requirement

Geodetic accuracy = 30m CEP

Hearing radius = 1 Nm

Water Depth = 400’

Demonstrated real time

Geodetic accuracy = <20m CEP

Hearing radius = 2.4 Nm

Water Depth = 350’

1 Nm

phase 1 submarine test emulates uuv using a single hydrophone smoothed time position estimates

GPS Track

Smoothed Acoustic Track

Phase 1 Submarine TestEmulates UUV using a single hydrophonesmoothed time position estimates

Reacquire detection

Phase 1 Requirement

Geodetic accuracy = 30m CEP

Hearing radius = 1 Nm

Water Depth = 400’

Demonstrated post event

Geodetic accuracy = <15m CEP

Hearing radius = 2.4 Nm

Water Depth = 350’

1 Nm

october submarine sea test
October Submarine Sea Test
  • Submarine at periscope depth, acoustic track compared to GPS track.
  • Demonstrated smoothed
  • geodetic accuracy < 20 m CEP
  • Water depth = 115 m
  • Measured beacon hearing

radius = 2.4 nm

  • Reconstructed tracking
  • radius = 2.75 nm

Reconstructed track radius

1 Nm

Results using a single beacon located at 0,0 coordinates in 350’ of water

16

slide17

Submerged Tracking System

Sea Data

% Occurrence

% Occurrence

Position Error (m)

Position Error (m)

Smoothed position error histogram

over the entire track area.

≈ 25 m CEP over entire 20 sq nmi area or

12.5 m CEP over minefield.

Real time position error histogram

over the minefield area.

≈ 20 m CEP over the 3.2 sq nmi of minefield area

slide19

Sparsely Populated Tracking System

Reconstructed positions of all participants into ECEF Coordinates

slide20

Sparsely Populated Tracking System

(4 Beacons = 100 nmi2 coverage)

  • Real time undersea vehicle

position estimates

  • Ocean current estimate used

to provide a continuous track

when undersea vehicle

outside beacon hearing radius

  • Post exercise smoothing

reduces real time tracking errors

Tracking of Undersea Vehicles to Within 25 m CEP for Entire Area

Higher Accuracies Achievable Within Center Area

summary
Summary
  • The UUV Navigation Aid determines the position of undersea vehicles by:
    • Detecting coded TOE synchronized pings from a single pre-installed beacon.
    • Estimating the TOA’s on one or more hydrophones to produce slant range measurements
    • Estimating the 2D position of the undersea vehicle relative to the known beacon based on the slant range measurements
  • In addition an estimate of the ocean current velocity is developed
    • Allows for improved dead reckon tracking outside beacon hearing radius
  • Real time track of undersea vehicles better than 30m CEP
    • 115m water depth
    • Hearing radius =1 nmi
  • Post event track of undersea vehicles better than 20m CEP
    • 115m water depth
    • Hearing radius = 2.4 nmi