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Session V Introduction to Basic Aid to Navigation Training
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  1. Session V Introduction toBasic Aid to Navigation Training

  2. Training Objectives 1. Review the definitions for the various Federal and Private AtoNs. 2. Understand why AtoNs are established. 3. Understand the specific purpose of the various AtoNs. 4. Become familiar with the flash characteristics used on AtoNs.

  3. AToN System Definitions IALA = InternationalAssociationof LighthouseAuthorities. Divides the world into 2 regions: Region “A”: Most of the World Region “B”: North & South America, Japan, Korea, and the Philippines

  4. AToN System Definitions The US uses the IALA-B System IALA-B = Red, Right, Returning from sea

  5. AtoN System Modes Region “A” • Green –Even - Triangles • Red -Odd - Squares Region “B” Red– Even - Triangles and nuns Green - Odd - Squares and cans

  6. ATON System Names U.S. Marking System Intracoastal Waterway System Western River System

  7. U. S. Marking System Lateral System: Employs a simple arrangement of . . . 1. Colors RED & Green 2. Numbers EVEN & ODD 3. Shapes NUNS & CANS 4. Shapes TRIANGLES & SQUARES

  8. Lateral Marks • define the port and starboard sides of a channel or fairway being followed. • Their most frequent use is to mark the sides of channels - may be used individually to mark obstructions located outside of clearly defined channels. • have three criteria that assist the mariner in their quick identification – shape, color, and numbering.

  9. U. S. Marking System Lateral System Numbering: • Red aids get even numbers • Green aids get odd numbers • Number start from sea and increase toward shore

  10. Conventional Directionof Buoyage • Purpose: To identify how aids should be passed in areas other than channels. • Regions: • Atlantic Coast: Southerly • Gulf Coast:North and Westerly • Pacific Coast:Northerly • Great Lakes:North and Westerly(Lake Michigan: Southerly)

  11. Conventional Direction of Buoyage

  12. Definition of an Aid to Navigation Any device, external to a vessel, intended to assist navigators to determine their position, safe course, or to warn them of dangers or obstructions to navigation.

  13. Definition of a Buoy Any unmanned, floating aid to navigation that is moored to the seabed. May be lighted or unlighted. The seabed is owned by the Corp of Engineers and is licensed to the Coast Guard who authorizes private parties to deploy PatoNs.

  14. Definition of a Beacon Any fixed aid to navigation located on a shore or marine site. Lighted beacons are calledLights. Unlighted beacons are called Daybeacons or Daymarks.

  15. Definition of a Daymark The daytime identifier of an aid to navigation presenting one of several colors, shapes, numerals or letters. Shape may be square, triangle, rectangle, diamond or octagon.

  16. Starboard Lateral Marks Color:Red Shape:Triangular or conical—nuns. Character:Even Numbers Light:Red

  17. Port Lateral Marks Color:Green Shape:Square / Cans Character:Odd Numbers Light:Green

  18. 2 Red Daymark

  19. 3 Green Daymark Will have a contrasting GREEN number

  20. Nun Buoy Should have a white number 6

  21. 7 Can Buoy Should have a white number

  22. A Preferred Channel Marks Purpose:Marks junctions / bifurcations Description: Color:Red&Greenhorizontally banded(top color band is preferred channel) Shape:Same as preferred channel(uppermost band is preferred channel) Character:Letter not number. Light:Same color as uppermost band. Characteristic:Gp Fl (2+1) 6s

  23. In the main channel, pass on yourport sidereturning from the sea.In the secondary channel, pass on yourstarboardside– “Red Right Returning”

  24. SafeWaterMark • Purpose:Indicates navigable water all around the mark • Description: • Color:Red and White vertically striped • Shape:Sphere or Buoy with Topmark • Character: White letters (ex. “NC” North Channel) • Light Color:White • Characteristic:Mo(A)

  25. Safe Water Marks MR Spherical Lighted and or sound

  26. Isolated Danger Mark • Purpose:Marks isolated dangers or obstructions that can be passed on all sides • Description: • Color:BlackandRedhorizontally banded • Shape:Buoy with Top marks • Character:White Letters • Light:White • Characteristic:Gp Fl (2) 5s

  27. Special Marks • Purpose:Not intended to assist safe navigation but to indicate special areas marked on charts (anchorage, traffic separation, data gathering) • Description: • Color:Yellow • Shape:Various • Character:Black letters • Light:Yellow • Characteristic:Fixed, Flashing(except Mo A, 2+1, Qk)

  28. Regulatory & Information Marks Not part of Lateral System Diamond- means danger and words may appear explaining the danger. Called aDanger Buoy Circle- means restricted operations. Speed Buoys (5 MPH) or No Wake Buoys. Diamond with a Cross- tells you that vessels are not allowed in the area. Sometimes called Exclusion Buoys Square- contains directions to the boater. Bridge Regulatory Signs.

  29. Regulatory and Information Marks • Purpose:Alert the mariner to such things as submerged pipes, no wake zones, etc. • Description: • Color:White withorangeband or border • Shape:Square, Round, or Diamond • Character:Letters (black, usually words) • Light:White

  30. Definition of a Range A pair of beacons arranged so that when they are aligned they indicate the center of the navigable channel.

  31. Range Marks • Purpose:Indicate the center line of a channel when aligned as you traverse the channel. • Description: • Color:They will have colored panelsequal in size vertical striped. • Shape:Rectangle tall side up. • Light- Green, Red, White andYellow. • Front range lightis lower of the two. • Rear range lightis higher and further from the mariner. • KGW= Range Greenwith White Stripe.

  32. WRECK MARKS • Purpose:To alert the mariner to wrecks. • Description: • Color:Appropriate to side of channel. • Shape:Appropriate to side of channel. • Character:White letters “WR”, numbered in sequence with channel (WR2). • Light:Same as buoy color. • Characteristic:Quick Flashing (unless aid is a preferred channel aid)

  33. DAY MARK Some markers will have no lateral significance. They are not designed to indicate the channel but rather, to help you determine where you are.

  34. Light Structures Major Lighthouses Are named. e.g. Boston Light Symbol is large exclamation point. Fixed position Minor Lights Not named Same symbol Fixed position

  35. Lighthouse • Enclosed edifice that houses protects, displays, or supports visual, audible, or radio aids to navigation. • All US Lighthouses are now unmanned (except Boston Light)

  36. Light Patterns – see page 12 Fixed(F) – continuous, unblinking light Flashing (Fl) – light duration shorter than darkness. Frequency not greater than 30 per minute. Quick Flashing (Q) – light duration shorter than darkness. Frequency is at least 60 per minute. Very Quick Flashing (VQ) – light duration shorter than darkness. Frequency is at least 100 per minute. Interrupted Quick Flashing (IQ) – like quick flashing but having a brief, extended darkness period. Isophase (Iso) – Light has equal duration between light and darkness. Period consists of both light and dark interval. Also called Equal Interval (E Int).

  37. Light Patterns Group Flashing (Gp Fl (x+x)) – Combination of two patterns in one period, i.e. 2 flashes followed by three flashes. Occulting (Occ) – Opposite of flashing – light is on more than it is off. Alternating(AL) – Alternating light changes color. Special purpose light for situations requiring significant caution. Example shows AL.WG…alternating white and green light. Morse(Mo) – Morse code light signal. Example is Morse “U” which is two short flashes followed by one prolonged flash then a period of darkness. Shown as (Mo(U)) on charts. Long Flashing (LFL) – One long flash in a period with lighted period of at least 2 seconds.

  38. Timing for Lights • Lights are timed for 60 seconds • See Standard Rhythms Table for time • i.e. Quick, 60 flashes/minFL 4, 15 fl/min and FL 6, 10 fl/min

  39. Intracoastal Waterway • Begins in New Jersey. • Goes south to the Florida Keys. • Then north along the west coast of Florida. • Then west along the Gulf of Mexico to Brownsville, Texas.

  40. Intracoastal Waterway Marks When aids in a channel are also used to identify an ICW channel. The normal “Red right returning from the sea” rule applies to both.

  41. Intracoastal Waterway Marks • Yellow triangles, squares and bands are used to identify ICW marks. • The material used is retroreflective. • Yellowtrianglesare usually displayed on red lateral marks used on the ICW. • Yellow squares usually are usually displayed ongreenlateral marks used on the ICW. • Yellow bands are displayed on non-lateral ATONS used on the ICW.

  42. Aidsmarking theIntracoastal Waterway

  43. Dual Purpose Marks • Are found on cans and nuns in the ICW. • Sometimes ayellow triangle appears on a can or square daymark or ayellow square appears on a nun or triangle daymark. The buoy has dual purpose. • To use the ICW, follow the yellowmarks. • When following the local waterway, use the(redorgreen) lateral system marks.

  44. Intracoastal Waterway Marks

  45. END OF Session V