Ethan. Questions Investigated by Psychologists. How important are parents in the development of a child? Why do individuals remain in abusive relationships? Is depression caused by a chemical imbalance? What are the long-term consequences of sexual assault?
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Objective data collection
Subjective data collection
Hit or miss observation
Reliance on evidence
…How to these combine into mental structures? What are the rules?
sensations and images were characterized by quality, sensation, intensity, duration, clearness, extensity.
Major Founder: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
“I have found little that is ‘good’ about human beings on the whole. In my experience most of them are trash.”
1) Free association: Patient reports freely and without censure ideas that come to mind.
2) Dream interpretation: Interpreting dreams uncovers symbols of unconscious conflict.
“If you could understand rats without the convolutions of introspection, could you not understand people the same way?”
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist that I might select- a doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even into a beggarman and thief………..”
“Little Albert” experiment….
a. Genetic abnormalities
b. Central nervous system problems
c. Brain damage
d. Hormonal changes
2) The Sociocultural perspective: Examines how culture affects mental health, identity, and ability to thrive.
3) The Evolutionary perspective: Analyzes how the human brain developed over hundreds of thousands of years. This framework can be used to understand:
a. Cross-cultural similarities
b. Gender differences
c. Drives (e.g. altruism).
Performing a controlled test
Gathering objective data
Analyzing the results
Publishing, criticizing, and replicating the results
the “cause” or variable presumed to bring about changes in the dependent variable(s); the IV is either controlled or manipulated by the researcher.
-- the “effect” or variable presumably altered by an independent variable; this variable is what is measured by a researcher.Step 2….
Remember this: The value of the dependent variable (D.V.) depends on what happens with the independent variable (I.V.). In our experiment:
I.V. – Alcohol Consumption
D.V. – Driving Performance
An operational definition: A definition of a variable that specifies how it is measured or manipulated.
2) Next, you perform a controlled test to either accept or reject hypothesis.
4. Analyze the data (test scores) and either accept or reject the hypothesis. You do this by using:
a. Statistics – Numbers that summarize or indicate differences or patterns of differences in measurement.
*For example, compare the mean driving scores between your experimental and control groups.
5.Publishing/criticizing/and replicating the results: This involves a write-up of your study results using a particular format (APA style). You should pose competing explanations for your findings is a special section of the write-up.
1) Participant expectancy bias: The participant’s expectations lead him or her (consciously or unconsciously) to be influenced by the experimental situation rather than I.V. manipulation.
2) Experimenter Expectancy Bias: The experimenters’ expectations lead him or her to consciously or unconsciously treat participants in a way that encourages the expected results.
A way eliminate these biases:
Eg. Drug studies.
3) Another form of bias is Sampling Bias: A bias that occurs when the participants are not chosen at random, but are instead chosen in such a way that they are not representative of the population (e.g. college students).
5) Confounding variables: Variables that vary along with the ones of interest, and could be the actual reason for the study findings.
Example: Effects of sleep deprivation on memory for people aged 18-25 verses 30-35.
Examples: lack of sleep and G.P.A;
domestic assault and self-esteem.
The correlation indexes a relationship in which changes in one variable are
accompanied by changes in another.
Cannot imply causation due to:
Possibility 1: A might cause B
Possibility 2: B might cause A
If A and B are correlated:
Possibility 3: A might influence B while B influences A in return.
Rather than A causing B or B causing A, third variable C causes A & B.
1) Naturalistic observation: Observing your variable of interest in its natural setting.
2) Case study: A study that focused on a single instance of a situation.
For example, a therapist writes an anonymous case study (with client permission) about a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD.
3) Survey: A set of questions about beliefs, attitudes, preferences and activities.
Example: Survey 500 students on campus about their beliefs/attitudes concerning alcohol.