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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright. Chapter 18. Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and Recovery PPT by Clark E. Adams. Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and Recovery. The solid-waste problem Solutions to the solid-waste problem Public policy and waste management.

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Environmental science toward a sustainable future richard t wright

Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable FutureRichard T. Wright

Chapter 18

Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and RecoveryPPT by Clark E. Adams


Municipal solid waste disposal and recovery
Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and Recovery

  • The solid-waste problem

  • Solutions to the solid-waste problem

  • Public policy and waste management


The solid waste problem
The Solid-Waste Problem

  • Disposal of municipal solid waste

  • Landfills

  • Combustion: waste to energy

  • Costs of municipal solid-waste disposal


Disposal of municipal solid waste msw
Disposal of Municipal Solid-Waste (MSW)

  • The solid-waste problem:

    • We generate huge amounts of MSW, and it is increasingly expensive to dispose of it in ways that are environmentally responsible and protective of human health.




Factors contributing to increasing amounts of msw
Factors Contributing to Increasing Amounts of MSW

  • Increasing populations

  • Changing lifestyles

  • Disposable materials*

    • Diapers

  • Excessive packaging*

* = two largest contributors to waste volume


Old landfill problems
Old Landfill Problems

  • Leachate generation

  • Methane production

  • Incomplete decomposition

  • Settling

http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/Pictures.htm


Improving landfills
Improving Landfills

  • Located above water table and away from airports

  • Contoured floor for leachate-collection system

  • Covered with earthen material

  • Groundwater monitoring wells



Landfill siting public reactions
Landfill Siting: Public Reactions

  • LULU (locally unwanted land use)

  • NIMBY (not in my backyard)

  • NIMTOO (not in my term of office)

http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/Pictures.htm



Trash to treasure table 18 1
Trash to Treasure (Table 18-1)

  • Highest (more than 1 million tons) net importers of MSW

    • Pennsylvania

    • Virginia

    • Michigan


Trash to treasure table 18 11
Trash to Treasure (Table 18-1)

  • Highest (more than 1 million tons) net exporters MSW

    • New York

    • New Jersey

    • Maryland

    • Missouri



Wte benefits
WTE Benefits

  • 80% MSW burned for electrical energy production

  • 12% recovered and recycled

  • 8% put into landfill


Wte benefits1
WTE Benefits

  • Tipping fees = $15 to $100/ton

  • Efficient

  • Electricity and fuel oil savings


Wte benefits2
WTE Benefits

  • Extends life of landfill

  • Reduces pollution

  • Concrete blocks

  • Resource recovery


Wte drawbacks
WTE Drawbacks

  • Cost of construction

  • Uninterrupted MSW stream flow

  • Hazardous materials

  • Siting

  • Competition with recycling efforts


Costs of msw disposal
Costs of MSW Disposal

  • Tipping fees increase: $34 to $263/ton

  • All revenues from MSW disposal = >$14 billion a year in 2002.

  • Illegal dumping

    • Tires

    • Refrigerators

    • Car parts


Solutions to the solid waste problem
Solutions to the Solid-Waste Problem

  • Source reductions

  • The recycling solution

  • Municipal recycling

  • Regional recycling options


Source reduction
Source Reduction

  • Less weight

  • Internet information transfer

  • Resale and donation of durable goods

  • Lengthening a product’s life cycle

  • Refusing bulk mail

  • Composting


The recycling solution
The Recycling Solution

  • Paper to paper

  • Newspaper = 13% MSW stream

  • Worth $30/ton

  • Ton of newspapers = 17 trees


The recycling solution1

Paper

Glass

Plastic

Metals

Yard wastes

Textiles

Old tires

Compost

Refabrication

Synthetic lumber

Sand or gravel

Insulation

Strengthens recycled paper

Highways

The Recycling Solution

Match


Municipal recycling
Municipal Recycling

  • 75% MSW recyclable if:

    • Mandatory

    • Easy to do

    • Incentives

    • Political and industrial support




Environmental science toward a sustainable future richard t wright

8


Regional recycling options
Regional Recycling Options

  • Materials recovery facilities (MRFs)

  • Mixed waste processing

  • Mixed waste and yard trimmings composting


Public policy and waste management
Public Policy and Waste Management

  • The regulatory perspective

  • Integrated waste management


The regulatory perspective
The Regulatory Perspective

  • Solid Waste Disposal Act 1965

  • Resource Recovery Act 1970 and 1976

  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976

  • Superfund Act 1980

  • Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments 1984


Integrated waste management
Integrated Waste Management

  • Waste reduction

  • Safe waste disposal

  • Recycling and reuse

  • Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) trash pickup