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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright Chapter 11 Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration PPT by Clark E. Adams Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration Global perspective on biological systems Conservation, preservation, restoration

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Environmental science toward a sustainable future richard t wright l.jpg

Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable FutureRichard T. Wright

Chapter 11

Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration

PPT by Clark E. Adams


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Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration

  • Global perspective on biological systems

  • Conservation, preservation, restoration

  • Biomes and ecosystems under pressure

  • Public and private lands in the United States


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What We Need to Know about Ecosystems

  • How they sustain human life and economies

  • Positive and negative effects of ecosystem conversions

  • Sustainable approaches to ecosystem management


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Natural Ecosystems on Earth’s Surface: Table 11-1

  • Total land area: 57.6 million square miles

  • Total ocean area: 172.6 million square miles – mostly open ocean


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Services of Natural Ecosystems (see Table 3-2)

  • Modification of climate

  • Maintenance of hydrological cycle

  • Erosion control and soil building


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Services of Natural Ecosystems (see Table 3-2)

  • Maintenance of oxygen and nitrogen cycles

  • Waste treatment

  • Pest management

  • Carbon storage and maintenance of carbon cycle


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Wetland Services

  • Valued at $100,000 per acre per year

  • Water purification and fish propagation


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Conservation, Preservation, Restoration

  • Conservation versus preservation

  • Patterns of use of natural ecosystems

  • Restoration


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Conservation versus Preservation

  • Conservation: managing or regulating use so that it does not exceed the capacity of the species or system to renew itself

  • Preservation: ensure species or ecosystem continuity regardless of their potential utility



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Patterns of Human Use of Natural Resources (True or False)

  • Greed

  • Ignorance

  • Desperation

  • Sustainability

  • Mining the resource

  • Managing the resource

  • Unregulated access to resource


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Tragedy of the Commons

  • Begins with unregulated access to a resource owned by no one. Examples?

  • Harvest based on largest amount over the shortest period of time.

  • No thought given to sustainable harvests.

  • Usually ends with no resource for anyone.


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Preventing a Tragedy of the Commons

  • Private ownership

  • Regulated access

    • Sustained benefits

    • Fairness in access rights

    • Common consent of the regulated


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Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Natural resources cannot be treated as an open commons.

  • Sound science needed to assess health and level of resource use.

  • Precautionary principle should be used in setting limits for exploitation.


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Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Regulations should be enforced.

  • Economic incentives that encourage the violation of regulations should be eliminated.

  • Subsidies that support exploitation should be removed.


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Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Suitable habitats for the resource should be preserved and protected from pollution.

  • The sustenance needs of people living close to the resource should be met.


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Restoration Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • The intent of ecosystem restoration is to repair the damage to specific land and waters so that normal ecosystem integrity, resilience, and productivity returns.


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Biomes and Ecosystems under Pressure Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Forest biomes

  • Ocean ecosystems

  • Coral reefs and mangroves


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Forest Biomes Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Conserve biodiversity

  • Moderate regional climates

  • Prevent erosion

  • Store carbon and nutrients

  • Provide recreational opportunities

  • Provide a number of vital goods


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World Forest Biomes Natural Resources (Table 11-2)


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Causes of Deforestation Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Conversion into pastures and agricultural lands

  • Consequences? (next slide)


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Consequences of Deforestation Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

Productivity

Nutrient recycling

Biodiversity

Soil erosion

Transpiration

Air pollution

More

Deforestation

or

Less


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Silviculture: Forest Management with Harvest Goals Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Even-aged management

    • Clear-cutting: no tree left behind

  • Uneven-aged management

    • Selective cutting


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Causes of the Loss of Tropical Rain Forests Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Colonization: consolidation of agricultural lands

  • Huge national debts

  • Fast food chains and cheap hamburger


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Conserving Tropical Rain Forests Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Ecotourism

  • Extractive reserves

  • Management by indigenous people

  • Rubber plantations

  • Sustainable logging


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Sustainable Forest Management Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

  • Manage for sustainable outcomes

  • Teach others

  • Protect the health of the forest

  • Recognize and protect unique forest ecosystems

  • Strive to be better forest managers


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Ocean Ecosystems Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

75% of the Earth’s

surface

An international

commons?


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Global Fish Harvests Natural Resources (Table 11-2)

139 million metric tons by

2001



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Fisheries Problems: Bottom Trawling 1982–2000

Too many boats

High technology

Too few fish


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The Magnuson Conservation Act of 1976 1982–2000

  • Gave federal government authority to manage fisheries

  • Claimed the area between 3 and 200 miles offshore as the “Exclusive Economic Zone”


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The Magnuson Conservation Act of 1976 1982–2000

  • Designed to eliminate foreign fishing

  • Designed to restore and conserve fish

http://images.fws.gov/


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Sustainable Fisheries Act 1982–2000

  • The 1996 reauthorization of the Magnuson Act

  • Mandates that fish stocks be rebuilt

  • Management plans and yields be based on scientific data

  • Steps be taken to minimize bycatch


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Factors That Restored Whale Populations (True or False) 1982–2000

  • International Whaling Commission

  • The Red Data Book

  • Whale watching

  • Japan’s scientific research

  • Stellwagen bank

http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/animals/


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Mangroves 1982–2000

  • Protects coasts from storm damage and erosion

  • Forms rich refuge and nursery for marine fish


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Coral Reefs 1982–2000

  • Important food sources for local people

  • Wave erosion control

  • Great diversity of marine vertebrates and invertebrates


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Sources of Damage to Coral Reefs 1982–2000

  • Warm water

  • Eutrophication

  • Islander poverty

  • Logging

  • Shrimp aquaculture

  • Coastal development


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Public and Private Lands in the United States 1982–2000

  • National parks and national wildlife refuges

  • National forests

  • Protecting nonfederal lands

  • Conclusion




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Wilderness Act of 1964 1982–2000

  • Provides for permanent protection of undeveloped and unexploited areas so that natural ecological processes can operate freely

  • 5% of land area in U.S.

  • Preservation, not conservation


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National Forests 1982–2000

  • Only 5% of the original U.S. forests are left

  • Most U.S. forests are second growth

http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/lassen/fire/gallery/


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Environmental 1982–2000

Concerns

Reagan

Clinton

Post WW II

Housing Boom


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New Forestry = Ecosystem Management 1982–2000

  • Cut trees less frequently

  • Leave wider buffer zones along waterways

  • Leave dead logs and debris

  • Protect broader landscapes

  • Build no new roads until damage to old ones is addressed


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Protecting Nonfederal Lands 1982–2000

  • Land Trust Alliance

  • Nature Conservancy

  • Trustees of Reservations in Massachusetts


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Conclusions? 1982–2000

  • We are plundering our children’s heritage to pay for our present unsustainable practices.

  • We need a new ethic of stewardship.

    • U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan


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End of Chapter 11 1982–2000