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CMM and the SDLC. Michael Dermody September 2010. What is CMMI ?. Capability Maturity Model Integration Is a Trademark owned by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University Process Improvement Approach – Improves Performance by improving processes

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cmm and the sdlc

CMM and the SDLC

Michael Dermody

September 2010

what is cmmi
What is CMMI ?
  • Capability Maturity Model Integration
    • Is a Trademark owned by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University
    • Process Improvement Approach – Improves Performance by improving processes
    • Provides organizations with the needed for effective process improvements
    • Framework for appraising the process maturity of the organization
  • According to SEI in 2008, CMMI helps "integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes.”
level 2 characteristics
Level 2 Characteristics
  • Projects are managed and under control
  • Estimating new project tasks is based on actual results from previous projects
  • Realistic commitments are negotiated and managed
  • Plans are documented, progress is tracked, and status is reported appropriately
  • Processes are defined at the project level
  • Project decisions are based on data
benefits of moving to level 2
Benefits of Moving to Level 2
  • Productivity gains
  • Early defect detection
  • Reduction in time between request and implementation
  • Reduction in post-implementation defects
  • Repeatable processes
life cycle







Life Cycle
  • A life cycle is a description of the approach that a project takes to develop and deliver software. It includes the sequencing of tasks organized by phases

Steps commonto all life cycles

work products
SW Project Design Documents

SW Project Design


Work Products
  • A work product is any document or deliverable that is used during the entire life cycle as well as any portion of the software that is delivered to the customer
  • The SDLC has templates and procedures for generating required work products
level 2 key process areas kpa
Level 2 Key Process Areas (KPA)

Focus on Project Management





Tracking & Oversight









Quality Assurance


level 2 kpas
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Requirements Management

Verifies Process

Controls Products

requirements management rm
Requirements Management (RM)

To establish a common understanding of requirements between the customer and the project and manage any changes to these over the life of the project.


Agree to an initial

set of software


Manage further changes to SW



what is a requirement
What is a Requirement?

Condition or capability that must be met by a system application to satisfy a business request

User Interface




All requirements should be testable

requirements baselined
Requirements Baselined

A document that:

  • Has been formally reviewed, agreed upon, and committed to by means of signoff
  • Serves as the basis for further development
  • Can be changed only through formal change control procedures

Builder Model 101

Cost: $170,000

Bedrooms: 3

Living Room


Dining Room

Expected Completion: April 30

requirements revised
Requirements Revised

Change Request

- Add Fireplace to Living Room- Build Bookshelves in Living Room - Add Family Room

- Add Porch

Builder Model 101

Cost: $220,000

Bedrooms: 3

Living Room with Fireplace & Bookshelves


Dining RoomFamily Room


Expected Completion June 30

Add Fireplace &

Install Built-in Bookshelves

Add Family Room

Add Porch

level 2 kpas1
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Project Planning

Requirements Management

Verifies Process

Controls Products

project planning pp
Project Planning (PP)

To develop plans and schedules based onthe activities, efforts, risks, and resources associated with satisfying project requirements


Estimate and

obtain resource


Identify activities


work products


Create the planand the schedule

Identify risks,

issues, and measures

to track

what is a statement of work
What is a Statement of Work?
  • A document that describes the work required to complete a project that consists of:
    • High-level project objectives and scope
    • Identification of customers
    • Imposed standards (management or technical)
    • Constraints (cost, schedule, and resources)
    • External commitments and dependencies
    • Top-level system requirements
what is a project plan
Table of Contents

Table of Contents

6. A defined life cycle for the project including review points

5. References to schedule with resources and milestones

2. Standards, methods, and procedures to be followed and the identified decision makers

1. Project objectives, scope, and assumptions

7. Risk identification and assessment

3. Work products to be created

4. Estimates of size, effort, and cost, and assumptions

9. References to SCM and SQA plans for the project

8. Commitments and dependencies

10. Verification and validation

What is a Project Plan?

A collection of plans describing the technical and nontechnical activities for a project. It governs the management of activities performed by the Software Engineering Process Group (SEPG) for a project.

software estimation
Tasks Wk 1 Wk2 Wk3 Wk4 Wk5

Plan Testing

Review Test Plan


Peer ReviewScenarios

Software Estimation
  • Use requirements as the high-level basis for beginning the project plan
  • Collect historical data for use in new estimates
  • Break activities down into manageable chunks(for example, < 60 hours of effort or 2 weeks duration)
  • Decompose manageable chunks into smaller process steps
Use a standard methodology
  • Identify and document estimating assumptions
  • Develop estimates in effort-hours, not elapsed time
  • Use in budgeting and staffing projects appropriately


What level of quality is required?


How much will it cost?


How much work will it require?


When will deliverables be available?


How big is it?


How much time is available per week?


How many people are needed?

What type of skills?

What tools do we need?

level 2 kpas2
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Project Tracking & Oversight

Project Planning

Requirements Management

Verifies Process

Controls Products

project tracking oversight pto
Project Tracking & Oversight (PTO)

To have adequate visibility into actual progress, in order to keep the project on track




and results

Adjust plans to

stay on track


Agree to

changes in


Track effort, size, risks,costs, and schedule

what to track in the project plan
What to Track in the Project Plan
  • Size, effort, cost, and duration
    • Larger/smaller, more/less complex, early/late?
  • Resources
    • Change in availability, over/under allocations?
  • Schedule/activities
    • Complete/not complete, additional activities?
    • Impact on dependent activities?
  • Risks
    • Resolved, changed, additional risks ?
    • Risk impact or probability changed?
corrective action tasks
Corrective Action Tasks
  • Adjust plan as deviations from the plan occur
    • Scope, Resources, Schedule
  • Review adjustments and obtain buy-in and commitment
  • Update plans based on requirement changes
  • Manage and mitigate risk
communication and oversight
Communication and Oversight
  • Internal project status reviews
    • Detail status of activities, schedule, effort, costs, and risks
    • Detail actuals to compare with estimates
  • Periodic senior management reviews
    • Status of accomplishments, issues, and risks
  • Milestone reviews
    • Formal reviews for customers, management. and affected groups at predetermined milestones
    • Progress, accomplishments, issues, risks
  • Ad hoc reviews occur as needed
level 2 kpas3
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Project Planning

Requirements Management

Project Tracking & Oversight

Verifies Process

Controls Products

Configuration Management

configuration management cm
Plan for

CM activities

Identify items to put under configuration management


changes to

configured items


status of

configuration items

Audit configuration


Configuration Management (CM)


To manage the integrity of the project’s work products


configuration items
User Manual

SW Project Design Documents

SW Project Design

Configuration Items

Any item that is designated for control and surveillance in order to track, trace, and record any changes


Software code / Library elements Baselines

Requirements Design documents

Product documents User documents

Test cases Test plans

PQA plans Estimates

baselining configuration items
Baselining Configuration Items
  • Baselines are established at predetermined points in the life cycle of the work product.
  • Configuration of a work product evolves during development and is applied by developers as they perform their work.
  • Create baselines at predetermined points

Baseline Examples


Functional baseline at end of Analysis


System baseline at end of Design


Example ProjectLife Cycle

Developmental baseline at end of Unit Test


Developmental baseline

at end of System Test



Production baseline at final release


level 2 kpas4
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Project Planning

Requirements Management

Project Tracking & Oversight

Verifies Process

Controls Products

Process Quality Assurance

Configuration Management

process quality assurance pqa
Process Quality Assurance (PQA)


To provide management with insight into the software process



Plan for PQA



Report results




  • A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that work products comply with software standards, procedures, and contractual requirements.
  • A set of activities designed to evaluate the process by which work products are developed and/or maintained.


  • Uses tools and techniques to audit work products


  • Compare actual work products against agreed upon standards and procedures


  • Uses tools and techniques to review activities

Peer Reviews


  • Compare actual activities against processes
summary of level 2 behaviors
Summary of Level 2 Behaviors
  • Use of processes and procedures is ensured by management and encouraged by peers
  • Benefits of following the process are understood and recognized
  • Appropriate training and resources are provided
  • Planned activities are willingly committed to
  • Open communications and sharing
  • Team approach versus individual heroics