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SDLC . Information Systems Development Terms. SDLC - the development method used by most organizations today for large, complex systems Systems Analysts - IS professionals who specialize in analyzing and designing information systems

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information systems development terms
Information Systems Development Terms
  • SDLC - the development method used by most organizations today for large, complex systems
  • Systems Analysts - IS professionals who specialize in analyzing and designing information systems
  • Programmers - IS professionals who modify existing computer programs or write new computer programs to satisfy user requirements
  • Technical Specialists - experts in a certain type of technology, such as databases or telecommunications, who help create information systems
the traditional sdlc a waterfall approach

Go Back to a previous Stage or Stop

The Traditional SDLCA waterfall approach

(1) Systems Investigation

An eight-stage systems development life cycle (SDLC)

(2) Systems Analysis

(3) Systems Design

(4) Programming

(5) Testing

(6) Implementation

(7) Operation

(8) Maintenance

key aspects with sdlc
Key aspects with SDLC
  • Active end-user involvement
    • Throughout development process
  • Top Management Support
    • Steering committee represents top management and all functional areas affected by project
  • How will you measure system success?
    • Should be established up-front
phases in sdlc
Phases in SDLC
  • System Investigation
    • Feasibility study determines the probability of success of proposed system’s development project. Includes …
      • Technical feasibility (will we be able to build the system?)
      • Economic feasibility (how much will it cost to build the system and how much will it benefit us?)
      • Behavioral feasibility (if we build the system, will it be accepted and used?)
phases in sdlc continued
Phases in SDLC (continued)
  • Systems Analysis
    • Examines the business problem(s) that the organization plans to solve with information systems
    • Determines what the new system must do by examining:
      • Strengths and weaknesses of the existing system
      • Functions that the new systems must have to solve the business problem(s)
      • User information requirements for the new system
    • Develops initial working relationship with current end users
phases in sdlc continued7
Phases in SDLC (continued)
  • Systems Design
    • Describes how the system will fulfill the user requirements
    • Develop both logical design and physical design
    • Output => technical design or system specification…
      • system outputs, inputs, and user interfaces
      • hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, and procedures
      • how these components are integrated
phases in sdlc continued8
Phases in SDLC (continued)
  • Systems Design (cont’d)
    • Factors to consider during make-or-buy decision
      • On-time/On-budget
      • Full functionality
      • User acceptance
      • Favorable costs-to-benefits ratio
      • Low maintenance
      • Scalability
      • Integration with other systems
      • Minimal negative cross-impacts
      • Reusability
      • Customization (is source code available?)
phases in sdlc continued9
Phases in SDLC (continued)
  • Programming
    • the translation of the design specifications into computer code
    • structured programming techniques improve the logical flow of the program by decomposing the computer code into modules
    • issue of open-source vs proprietary development tools
phases in sdlc continued10
Phases in SDLC (continued)
  • Testing (quality assurance)
    • Checks to see if the computer code will produce the expected and desired results under certain conditions
    • Use combinations of black-box and white-box testing
phases in sdlc continued11
Phases in SDLC (continued)
  • Implementation
    • The process of converting from the old system to the new system
    • Four major conversion strategies
      • Parallel conversion: the old and new systems operate simultaneously for a period of time
      • Direct conversion: the old system is cut off and the new systems is turned on at a certain point in time
      • Pilot conversion: introduces the new system in one part of the organization
      • Phased conversion: introduces components of the new system in stages
sdlc phases
SDLC Phases
  • Operation
    • the new system will operate for a period of time, until it no longer meets its objectives
  • Maintenance (simultaneous with Operation)
    • debugging the programs
    • updating the system to accommodate changes in business conditions
    • adding new functionality to the system
alternatives to the sdlc
Alternatives to the SDLC
  • Prototyping
    • Starts with only a general idea of user requirements, and develops models of the system ‘until it’s right’
    • Advantages:
      • Speeds up the development approach
      • Gives the users the opportunity to clarify their information requirements
      • Useful in the development of decision support systems and executive information systems
    • Disadvantages:
      • Replaces the systematic analysis and design stages of the SDLC - quality may be sacrificed
      • Can result in an excess of iterations
alternatives to the sdlc continued16
Alternatives to the SDLC -- continued
  • Joint Application Design (JAD)
    • A group-based method for collecting user requirements and creating staged designs
    • Advantages:
      • Saves time
      • Greater support for, and acceptance of new systems
      • Produces higher quality systems
      • Easier implementation
      • Lower training costs
    • Disadvantages:
      • Very difficult to get all users to JAD meetings
      • All the problems that may be caused by any group process
alternatives to the sdlc continued17
Alternatives to the SDLC -- continued
  • Integrated Computer-Assisted Software Engineering (ICASE) Tools
    • Automate many of the tasks in the SDLC
    • Advantages:
      • Produces systems with a longer effective operational life
      • Speeds up the development process and result in systems that are more flexible and adaptable to changing business conditions
      • Results in excellent documentation
    • Disadvantages:
      • More expensive to build and maintain initial system
      • Requires more extensive and accurate definition of user needs and requirements
      • Difficult to customize and may be difficult to use with existing systems
alternatives to the sdlc continued18
Alternatives to the SDLC -- continued
  • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
    • A method that can combine JAD, prototyping, and integrated CASE tools, to rapidly produce a high-quality system
    • Advantages:
      • Active involvement of users in the development process
      • Speeds the development process
      • Reduces development costs
      • Can create applications that are easier to maintain and modify
    • Disadvantages:
      • May result in systems with limited functionality and adaptability for change
alternatives to the sdlc continued19
Alternatives to the SDLC -- continued
  • End User Development
    • Users perform ad hoc programming to solve business problems
    • Factors that drive the trends toward increased end-user computing and end-user development
      • More powerful, inexpensive desktop hardware
      • Increasingly diverse software capabilities
      • Increasingly computer literate population
      • Backlog of IS projects
      • Apparent cost savings
    • End-users (usually) don’t produce adequate documentation or perform adequate testing
    • Security may be breached
alternatives to the sdlc continued20
Alternatives to the SDLC -- continued
  • Application Service Providers (ASPs)
    • Software obtained via subscription
    • Software resides on ASP’s systems
    • Software is accessed via Web or VPN
    • Subscriber does not have to host software on existing computer systems
    • Updates and bug fixes are provided by the ASP
    • ASP can provide help-desk support
alternatives to the sdlc continued21
Alternatives to the SDLC -- continued
  • Web Services
    • Dynamic pages replicate software functionality
    • Eases maintenance
      • Do not need to touch each machine when installing updates