Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Introduction to Sauces Topic Learning Objective • At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to discuss the different types of Starches and methods of cooking and the method to prepare a White Sauce.
Sauces • Cream or white sauce, medium sauces are used to bind ingredients together in scalloped meat, fish egg, and vegetable dishes • Made with butter, flour, milk • Cooked over low heat and stirred constantly • Butter Sauces, white or cream sauces with a high % of butter and little or no seasoning other than salt • Used with green veggies, and with fish and shellfish • Hollandaise Sauce • Other Sauces: • Pizza, tomato, Creole, sweet and sour, tartar sauce, bar-b-que.
Sauces • Standards for preparing a good sauce • Should not over power the flavor of food it accompanies • Should be of proper consistency • Should be thoroughly cooked
Starches in cooking • Used as a thickening agent. • What are the different types of starches? • Cornstarch • Flour
Chemical Properties • Actual thickening process caused by starch granules swelling up. • The correct quantity of water (or fat) is necessary when adding to starches. • Ensures correct food consistency • Eliminates lumping • Prevents thickened liquids from reverting to liquid form after cooking
Starch Granules • Heating temperatures • Cornstarch and flour mixtures start to thicken at 144 to 162 deg F. These starches complete the final thickening process at 205 deg F. • Cooking times • Under cooking does not allow starches to reach their maximum thickening capability. • Other ingredients • High amounts of acid in food may prevent starches from setting and may curdle.
Guidelines for preparing sauces and gravies with a Roux • Roux is a cooked mixture of equal parts by weight of fat and flour • Fat types: • Clarified butter – for a finer sauce, good flavor (what is clarified butter? • Margarine: widely used in place of butter because of its lower cost, inferior flavor, not as fine a sauce, quality varies • Animal fats: chicken fat, beef drippings, lard, can be used when their flavor is appropriate to the soup or sauce, when properly utilized, can enhance flavor • Vegetable oil and shortening: not preferred because they add no flavor
Flour • Flour thickening power depends on starch content, bread flour has less starch and more protein than cake flour • Sometimes browned dry in the oven for use in brown roux, but has only one-third the thickening power of un-browned flour • Produces an opaque (not allowing light to pass through) gel. • Same procedures apply in cooking as in other starches: Propertemperature, time & mixing
Cornstarch • Produces a product that is almost clear with a glossy texture, Paste is clear or translucent (permits light to pass through but not clearly) • Only half as much cornstarch as flour is required – has twice the thickening power • Corn starch is more desirable for use in dessert sauces (cherry sauce, pineapple sauce, etc.) Pie fillings (chocolate, cherry, apple, etc.) • Mix cornstarch in cold liquids stirring until smooth before adding it to a hot liquid. • Eliminates lumping. • Stir continuously during cooking to achieve maximum thickness, simmer until liquid turns clear and no starchy taste • Excessive boiling will break down the starch and thin out the product.
Roux • Ingredient Proportions: A well-made roux should be stiff, not runny or pour able. • Using excess fat increases the cost of roux and allows the excess to rise to the top of the soup or sauce which makes the product look and taste greasy. • Preparing Roux: Roux must be cooked so that the finished product does not have the raw starchy taste of the flour.
Roux • WHITE ROUX: Cooked for only a few minutes, just enough to cook out the raw taste of the flour. Once the white roux has a frothy, chalky, slightly gritty appearance the cooking is stopped before it begins to color. White roux is used as a thickening agent for products based on milk. • BLOND ROUX: Also known as a pale roux is cooked a little longer just until the roux begins to change to a slightly darker color. Blond roux is used for products based on white stocks and results in a pale ivory color for the finished product. • BROWN ROUX: Brown roux is cooked until it takes on a light brown color with a nutty aroma and has the consistency of beach sand. This roux is cooked slowly over low heat to allow easy browning without scorching. For a deeper brown roux the flour may be browned in the oven before adding the fat.
Roux • Basic Procedure for Roux Preparation • Melt fat. • Add equal amounts of flour, stirring until fat and flour are thoroughly mixed • Cook to require degree for white, blond, or brown roux. NOTE: Cooking is done in a heavy bottomed saucepan on top of the stove and stirred constantly for even cooking. Use low heat for brown roux, moderate heat for white or blond roux.
Roux • Combining roux and liquid to achieve a smooth, lump-free product is a skill that takes practice to master. • Liquid may be added to roux, or roux may be added to liquid.
“Mother Sauces” • Also called Grand Sauces. These are the five most basic sauces that every cook should master. Antonin Careme, founding father of French "grande cuisine," came up with the methodology in the early 1800's by which hundreds of sauces would be categorized under five Mother Sauces, and there are infinite possibilities for variations, since the sauces are all based on a few basic formulas. Sauces are one of the fundamentals of cooking. Know the basics and you'll be able to prepare a multitude of recipes like a professional. Learn how to make the basic five sauces and their most common derivatives. The five Mother Sauces are: • Bechamel Sauce (white) • Veloute Sauce (blond) • Brown (demi-glace) or Espagnole Sauce • Hollandaise Sauce (butter) • Tomato Sauce (red)
Making the Sauce from Roux Béchamel Sauce or White Sauce • USE A HEAVY BOTTOMED SAUCEPOT: Prevent scorching to either the roux or the stock. • COOL ROUX: Once the roux is made remove it from the fire to cool slightly. • POUR LIQUID SLOWLY: Beat vigorously to prevent lumping. If the liquid is hot the starch will gelatinize quickly. If the liquid is cool it can be added slowly to dissolve the roux before adding the remaining liquid. • BRING LIQUID TO A BOIL: Continue to beat well as roux does not reach its full thickening power until near the boiling point. • SIMMER THE PRODUCT: Simmer product until all the starchy taste of the flour has been cooked out. • FINISHING THE PRODUCT: When product is finished, keep it hot or cooled for later use. Either way it should be covered or should have a thin film of butter melted on the top to prevent a skin formation.
Making the Sauce from Roux Proportions Of Roux To Liquid in White Sauce or Béchamel sauce Croquette: A small cake of minced food, such as poultry, vegetables, or fish, that is usually coated with bread crumbs and fried in deep fat.
Cheese Sauce from White Sauce Cheese Sauce: • Start with medium white sauce, add 1 cup shredded sharp American cheese, stirring to melt • Or add 2/3 c shredded American cheese and 2/3 c shredded Swiss cheese • Add cooked pasta • Natural cheese gives a grainy texture and stringy appearance, process cheese gives a smooth sauce
Other Thickeners Slurry: A thin mixture of flour and cold water (milk) products made with a slurry have neither as good a flavor nor as fine a texture as those made with roux. Frequently used for gravies Breadcrumbs and other crumbs: Will thicken a liquid very quickly because they have already been cooked, like instant starches. Crumbs may be used when smoothness of texture is not desired. A common example is the use of gingersnap crumbs to thicken sauerbraten gravy. Adapted from: Whatscookingamerica.net www.uscg.mil/mlclant/KDiv/docs/RLESSON26.ppt www.doe.in.gov/octe/facs/CAF-LessonPlanForRoux.doc