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The Thirty Years War (1618-1648). 1618-1648. Characteristics of the Thirty Years War. The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) was the battleground. At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened.

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TheThirty Years

War (1618-1648)



Characteristics of the Thirty Years War

  • The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) was the battleground.

  • At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants.

  • At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened.

  • Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.


Thirty years war
Thirty Years War

  • Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625)

    • Ferdinand of Bohemia … HRE Ferdinand II

    • Defenestration of Prague

  • Danish Phase (1625 – 1629)

  • Swedish Phase (1630 – 1635)

  • French-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648)





Nobody Was Happy!

  • Many Protestants felt betrayed.

  • The pope denounced it.

  • Only merit  it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable!

  • For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe.


Elizabethan

England


Queen elizabeth tudor i
Queen Elizabeth Tudor I

  • Born: September 7, 1533 to King Henry VIII and

    Anne Boleyn, his second wife.

  • Coronated: January 15, 1559 at Westminster Abbey

  • Died: March 24, 1603 at age 69




The act of supremacy
The Act of Supremacy

  • Gave Elizabeth ultimate control of the Church of England.

  • Title of monarch modified to "Supreme Governor of the Church in England". 

  • Also included an oath of loyalty to the Queen that the clergy were expected to take.

    • If they did not take it, then they would lose their office. 



Scotland
Scotland

  • Many believed that Mary, Queen of Scots, a catholic, was the rightful Queen of England.

  • Since Mary too was a female sovereign Queen, Elizabeth was careful about how she recognized Mary’s power because she didn’t want to be in the same situation.

  • After Mary was forced out of Scotland and fled to England, Elizabeth locked her up.

  • Although Elizabeth did not want to have her cousin executed, she was forced to send Mary to execution after another plot to overthrow Elizabeth was uncovered.


War with spain
War with Spain

  • Elizabeth had rebuked repeated offers of marriage from Philip II of Spain

  • This angered him

  • He also saw himself as the champion of Catholicism and sought to crush the Protestant Brits

  • WAR!!!


1588

  • British troops mass at Tilbury in anticipation of Spanish invasion

  • Elizabeth delivers a moving speech

  • Spanish Armada sails for England

  • Weather and Sir Francis Drake destroy Spanish Armada (1588)

  • England on the ascent .. Spain in decline




Succession
Succession

  • On her deathbed, Elizabeth passed the crown onto James of Scotland.

    • He was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, Elizabeth’s cousin

  • Elizabeth felt comfortable in giving the crown to James because he had been raised by Protestant minister with whom Elizabeth had a correspondence.


How she left the country
How She Left the Country

  • England was one of the most powerful and prosperous countries in the world.

  • In spite of this, the country was saddled with tremendous debt

  • It had proved itself to be the strongest Naval force in the World.

  • "She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island," marvelled Pope Sixtus V, "and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all"


EnglishConstitutionalMonarchy

Mayo


Two models
Two Models

Parliamentary Monarchy

Political Absolutism

France

England


Two governmental models
Two Governmental Models

  • Military organization had a immense impact on political development

  • Military was much more expensive that it was previously

  • Monarchies tied to assemblies, parliaments, etc. had trouble raising money



England v france

Monarchy’s attempt to raise revenue through new taxation undermined local nobility and land owners

Puritans (Protestant religious movement) opposed the Stuart monarchy

French nobility was dependent on Louis XIV goodwill and patronage … support benefited them

Louis XIV crush Protestant communities and gained support of Catholics (one religion)

England v. France


Parliament was long established and bargained with the king undermined local nobility and land owners

Stuart monarchs were weak, acted on whims and offended numerous groups

Estates General had met in 1614 … not again until 1789 … only called by king

Strong personalities … Cardinal Richelieu, Mazarin, Louis XIV


The Stuart Monarchy undermined local nobility and land owners


James I [r. 1603-1625] undermined local nobility and land owners

Divine Right of Kings


Growing crisis
Growing Crisis undermined local nobility and land owners

  • James I sought to raise revenue without calling Parliament

  • James I also offended Puritans

    • King James Bible

    • Sports

      • Archery, Morris Dances, Whitsun-ales, leaping, vaulting, other such harmless recreation … NO bowling!


King James Bible, undermined local nobility and land owners1611


Other missteps by james
Other Missteps by James undermined local nobility and land owners


Witch hunts
Witch Hunts undermined local nobility and land owners

  • Persecuted thousands for witchcraft

  • Personally liked to watch interrogations and tortures of accused witches


Male affairs
Male Affairs undermined local nobility and land owners

  • "I, James, am neither a god nor an angel, but a man like any other. Therefore I act like a man and confess ... that I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else,... (his long term lover whom he often called "Wife" in public); I wish to speak in my own behalf and not to have it thought to be a defect, For Jesus Christ did the same, and therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had his John, and I have my George


Charles I [r. 1625-1649] undermined local nobility and land owners


The Many Faces of Charles I undermined local nobility and land owners


Charles i 1625 1649
Charles I (1625 – 1649) undermined local nobility and land owners

  • Charles I, now king, had to resort to other measures to pay for the war

  • New tariffs, discontinued taxes

  • Forced loans (required, but repaid) … prison for those who refused



The Petition of Rights, 1628 with Spain

“The Stuart Magna Carta”


Personal rule
Personal Rule with Spain

  • 1629 – Parliament acted to label taxation without the consent of parliament and anything leading to “popery” in religion were acts of treason

  • Charles dissolved Parliament

  • Charles made peace with France and Spain to conserve his resources

  • Fear of catholic sympathies

  • Charles’ wife was Catholic (French)

    • Henrietta Maria


Return of parliament
Return of Parliament with Spain

  • War with Scotland (prayer book riots) (1637) (1638, vow, petition) (WAR)

  • To finance the war, the king called Parliament

  • Led by John Pym and Oliver Cromwell they refused to back the king or finance the war until the king addressed a list of grievances

  • Charles immediately dissolved Parliament

  • 1640, great Scottish victory over the English at Newburn … King recalled parliament …


The long parliament
The Long Parliament with Spain

  • Parliament now met for 20 years (hence the name … 1640 – 1660)

  • House of Commons impeached many nobles on the royal court

  • Voted that no more than three years between meetings … voted that they could not be dissolved without their own consent

  • Rebellion in Ireland (1641)

  • Parliament voted to take control of the army from Charles if they were to finance any more wars


Civil war
Civil War with Spain

  • January 1642 – Charles invaded parliament with his army

  • He wanted to arrest John Pym and others but they had escaped

  • Shocked, Parliament voted to raise its own army …

    • Die was cast … Civil War

    • 1642 - 1646


Civil War with Spain(1621-1649)

Royalists(Cavaliers)

Parliamentarians(Roundheads)

  • House of Lords

  • N & W England

  • Aristocracy

  • Large landowners

  • Church officials

  • More rural, less prosperous

  • House of Commons

  • S & E England

  • Puritans

  • Merchants

  • Townspeople

  • More urban , more prosperous


Major battles and outcome
Major Battles and Outcome with Spain

  • Oliver Cromwell took control of Roundheads

    • New Model Army

  • Victories over the king at Battle of Marston Moor (1644)

    • Naseby(Naisby) (1645)

    • Preston (1648)

      * Pride’s Purge



Oliver Cromwell [ with Spain1599-1658]The “Interregnum” Period [1649-1660]

  • The Commonwealth(1649-1653)

  • The Protectorate(1654-1660)


The protectorate 1654 1660
The Protectorate with Spain(1654-1660)

  • From 1654-1660 Oliver Cromwell ruled England as a military dictator

  • Puritan dogma and social values were enforced as laws

  • Many were executed for the most minor of violations

Lord Protector


Irish conquest
Irish Conquest with Spain

  • Cromwell personally led invasion and conquest of Ireland … very brutal

  • The public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic priests were murdered when captured.

  • All Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 and given to Scottish and English settlers, the Parliament's financial creditors and Parliamentary soldiers.

  • Under the Commonwealth, Catholic landownership dropped from 60% of the total to just 8%


Scotland1
Scotland with Spain

  • 1659, Cromwell invaded Scotland because Scotland had declared Charles II king

  • Cromwell's men sacked the town of Dundee, killing up to 2,000 of its population of 12,000 and destroying the 60 ships in the city's harbor.

  • During the Commonwealth, Scotland was ruled from England, and was kept under military occupation, with a line of fortifications sealing off the Highlands, which had provided manpower for Royalist armies in Scotland, from the rest of the country.


Cancel christmas
Cancel Christmas! with Spain

  • Restricted religious practices that were not strictly Puritan (Calvinist)

  • Closed theatres

  • Closed pubs

  • Closed Brothels

  • Allowed Jews to worship openly and paved way for general acceptance … diplomatic conversion … precursor to “last days”


King Charles II [ with Spainr. 1660-1685]


King Charles II [ with Spainr. 1660-1685]

  • 1673  Test Act

    • Parliament excluded all but Anglicans from civilian and military positions.[to the Anglican gentry, the Puritans were considered “radicals” and the Catholics were seen as “traitors!”]


King James II [ with Spainr. 1685-1688]

  • Was a bigoted convert to Catholicism without any of Charles II’s shrewdness or ability to compromise.

  • Alienated even the Tories.

  • Provoked the revolution that Charles II had succeeded in avoiding!


The “Glorious” Revolution: 1688 with Spain

  • Whig & Tory leaders offered the throne jointly to James II’s daughter Mary [raised a Protestant] & her husband, William of Orange.

    • He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV.

    • He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.


English Bill of Rights [ with Spain1689]

  • It settled all of the major issues between King & Parliament.

  • It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights.

  • It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18c and early 19c in England.


English Bill of Rights [ with Spain1689]

  • Main provisions:

    • The King could not suspend the operation of laws.

    • The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice.

    • No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent.

    • Freedom of speech in Parliament.

    • Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently.

    • Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment.

    • The monarch must be a Protestant.

    • Freedom from arbitrary arrest.

    • Censorship of the press was dropped.

    • Religious toleration.


Louis xiv

Louis XIV with Spain

Absolutism?


French government
French Government with Spain

  • Challenges to authority?

    • Strong, well-armed nobles

    • Discontented Protestants

  • Chief Ministers

    • Cardinal Richelieu (1585 – 1642) Louis XIII (r.1610 – 1643)

    • Cardinal Mazarin (1602 – 1661) Louis XIV briefly

      • Violated previously established freedoms

      • Built royal absolutism


Fronde
Fronde with Spain

  • Rebellions by French nobles

  • 1649-1652

  • Unsuccessful

  • Fronde (sling)


Louis xiv1
Louis XIV with Spain

  • Personal control of government at 23

  • Growth of monarchy and Louis’ authority benefitted nobles …. Ensured their support

  • Parlements – regional judicial bodies, NOT like Britain

  • Parlement of Paris was different, more power, less supportive of absolutism


Divine right
Divine Right with Spain

  • “L’etat, c’est moi” (I am the state)

  • Only God could judge the king

  • Though divine right, rule was NOT oppressive


Wars with Spain

  • War of the Spanish Succession

    • 1700 Charles II, last Hapsburg King of Spain, died

    • Charles II had left throne to Louis’ grandson, Philip of Anjou … Philip V of Spain

    • Spain and assets to France?

    • War from 1701 – 1714

    • Louis had inadequate resources

    • Treaty of Utrecht 1713


Religious persecution
Religious Persecution with Spain

  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685)

    • Part of larger persecution of Protestants before and after

    • Also persecuted Jansenists

      • Catholics … St. Augustine

      • Free will?


Versailles: with Spain

Home of the

"Sun King"

Mayo


Young Louis XIV with Spain


L’ouis XIV with Spain


L’ etat with Spainc’est moi!

ByHyacintheRigaud



L’ ouis XIV as Apollo with Spain

by Jean Nocret, 1670


The Sun Symbol with Spain


Louis XIV with SpainGian Lorenzo Bernini, 1665


Versailles Statistics with Spain

  • 2,000 acres of grounds

  • 12 miles of roads

  • 27 miles of trellises

  • 200,000 trees

  • 210,000 flowers planted every year

  • 80 miles of rows of trees

  • 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal

  • 12 miles of enclosing walls

  • 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles

  • 21 miles of water conduits

  • 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed

  • 26 acres of roof

  • 51,210 square meters of floors

  • 2,153 windows

  • 700 rooms

  • 67 staircases

  • 6,000 paintings

  • 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings

  • 2,100 sculptures

  • 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art

  • 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden


Versailles
Versailles with Spain

  • Palace Comparison

  • U.S. Mansions


Versailles Today with Spain




Versailles Palace, with SpainPark Side








The Orangery with Spain





Temple of Love with Spain


Hall with SpainofMirrors


The King’s Bed with Spain

The Queen’s Bed








Paths to power

Paths to Power with Spain

Central and Eastern Europe


Robert walpole
Robert Walpole with Spain

  • Robert Walpole

    • Managed economic recovery and stability for George I

    • Became considered first Prime Minister of GB

    • Controlled government patronage and managed bureaucracy

    • “Let sleeping dogs lie”


Let sleeping dogs lie with Spain

Robert Walpole


Sweden
Sweden with Spain

  • Sweden had played a major role in the Thirty Years’ War

  • Sweden consolidated control of the Baltic Sea

  • Sweden had one of the better armies in Europe

  • Economic concerns … weak


Charles xii
Charles XII with Spain

  • Ruled 1697 – 1718

  • Stubborn and insane

  • Opposed Russian expansion in the Baltic region

  • Great Northern War (1700-1721)

  • Charles led a vigorous and brilliant campaign


Great northern war
Great Northern War with Spain

  • Sweden defeated Russia at Narva (1700)

  • 1708 invasion of Russia … bogged down in harsh Russian winter (a recurring theme)

  • Charles died in 1718 … war exhausted Swedish resources and Army


Outcome of the great northern war
Outcome of the Great Northern War with Spain

  • Russia gained foothold in Baltic

  • Prussia gained Pomerania

  • Swedish nobles quarreled over power and Sweden faded into the European background



Poland
POLAND with Spain

  • Polish armies had rescued Vienna from a Turkish siege in 1683

  • Following this glorious effort, Poland faded in influence

  • Internal squabbling amongst nobles and a fierce desire for autonomy prevented centralized authority


Diet with Spain

  • No king, but the nobles did have a legislature (diet)

  • Nobles ONLY

  • Liberum veto … a single member could demand the body disband … “exploding the diet”

  • Requirement of unanimity doomed Poland

  • Poland disappeared by the end of 1700s


Hapsburg austria
Hapsburg Austria with Spain

  • Spanish and Austrian branches of the Hapsburg family became officially split after the Treaty of Westphalia

  • Austrian Hapsburgs retained title of Holy Roman Emperor

  • Hapsburgs used military to extend power into Netherlands and northern Italy


Pragmatic sanction
Pragmatic Sanction with Spain

  • Hapsburg line eventually ran out of heirs after Charles VI (1711-1740)

  • Pragmatic Sanction Provided the legal basis for a single line of inheritance through Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa

  • This worked for political stability, but foreign aggression was a threat


Prussia and the hohenzollerns
Prussia and the Hohenzollerns with Spain

  • Hohenzollerns took territory in Brandenburg and expanded it into the large entity called Prussia (among German states of HRE)

  • Second only to the Hapsburgs in HRE


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