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The Age of Exploration

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  1. The Age of Exploration Europe Encounters the World

  2. What are we learning today8.2A Identifyreasons for European exploration and colonization of North America. 3 G’s Gold, Glory, God 8.2 B Compare economic, religious, and social reasons for the establishment of the 13 English colonies.

  3. Why did explorations happen when they did? • A variety of factors all came together to make the time period (1450-1700) the “age of exploration” • Some of these factors were pushes, external forces acting on Europe • Some were pulls, motivations and things that attracted the Europeans

  4. How did these explorations begin? • The first to encourage new ship explorations was Prince Henry of Portugal, known as “Prince Henry the Navigator” • Started an institute for seafaring and exploring • Combined ship technology learned from Islam with new European innovations • By the time of his death in 1460, Portuguese had sailed as far south as the Gold Coast of West Africa

  5. What are we learning today? 8.2A Identify reasons for European exploration and colonization of North America. 3 G’s Gold, Glory, God

  6. What were the new technologies that enabled explorations? • The caravel was a new, faster, more maneuverable ship • Older ships had square sails, caravels had triangular sails (easier to change direction) • Bilge pump system enabled ship to float higher (less likely to run aground, easier to explore coasts and rivers) • Compass, astrolabe, maps and other technologies from Islamic culture all helped make explorations possible

  7. Growth in Trade • In the Middle Ages Marco Polo (1254-1324) returned from China and encourage an increase in trade.

  8. G GG • Emergence of Powerful European Rulers Wanted to extend their influence through exploration. • Desire for Profits Capitalist economy was just emerging and people were seeing new wealth from investment and trade. • Religious Enthusiasm Missionaries from Spain and Portugal sought to spread Christian religion.

  9. What is the easiest way to remember it all? • The Three G’s: • Gold • Glory • God • Although a little simplistic, this mnemonic is a great way to remember the main motivations of the European explorers.

  10. The First G: Gold • Gold was a hot item that explorers were looking for, but remember that it is really wealth ($$$), not just literal gold that explorers were after. • Europe needed gold (and silver) to fuel the rising banking system • Europeans also desired spices • Other natural resources would come to be sold for profit as well (timber, sugar, tobacco, ivory, etc.) • This competition will be enhanced by the idea of mercantilism, the idea that there is only so much wealth in the world, and that to make your kingdom strong you must have more gold and wealth than the other kingdoms

  11. Exploration--Mercantilism Financial Reasons for Exploration--Mercantilism Principles of mercantilism: Nation’s wealth depends on capital. capital= one of the factors of production bullion (gold or silver). A nation needed as much as possible. Labor Land Capital

  12. mercantilism • Fundamental tenets of mercantilism • 1.Mercantilism is : Trade=money= power for the mother country • converted into other forms of power: such as military instruments, influence, and territory The New territory exist for the Mother Country.

  13. mercantilism 1.Mercantilism is : Trade=money= power ForWhom????? For the Mother Country

  14. Mercantilism • Governments need raw materials for products produced in the nation. They get the raw materials from the colonies at a low price that they use to make a product that they sell back to the colonies at a high price. Governments controlled corporations and trading companies. • Governments regulated production so nation could be exporting more than it imported. • Sought exclusive trading rights with foreign powers and “new world,” which led to rivalries with other European powers. • Established in the colonies for purpose of bring wealth back to the mother country.

  15. Think- Write- Pair Share Explain the first reason for European Exploration? The first reason for European Exploration is What does Gold represent ? In European exploration gold represents What is mercantilism? Mercantilism is the economic process that

  16. The second G: Glory • Just like the first G, Gold, Glory was a relatively new idea in Europe • Came out of the Renaissance ideal of Humanism, and the focus on individual achievement • With the rise of the printing press, the idea of gaining fame for one’s actions was more possible • Also, individual kings wanted glory for their kingdoms, competition spreads The Triumph of Fame, a Flemish tapestry from 1502.

  17. The second G: Glory • Spanish colonies were very successful in brining wealth and pride to Spain, so England and France wanted the same thing. • Workers/Farmers: wanted to move up the social ladder.

  18. Think- Write- Pair Share • What was the second reason for European Exploration? The second reason for European exploration was _________________________ Define what it means by Glory The term glory means

  19. The third G: God • Europeans have always felt it was their godly duty to spread Christianity and convert non-believers to their form of Christianity. • After the Protestant Reformation, competition will spring up to convert people to their form of Christianity • Colonization of the new world will become a race to convert native peoples to a particular brand of Christianity • Jesuits (Catholics) are some of the most active • People came to the New World to be able to practice their religion without fear of persecution

  20. Think- Write - Pair Share The third reason for European exploration is • What is the third European reason for Exploration?

  21. Use your notes above to complete the Cause section of your thinking map BACK PAGE OF NOTES Exploration

  22. Effects of European Exploration • Spanish Explorers claimed “New Spain” which is present day Mexico. • France set up Fur trade with the Native American in “New France which was Ohio River valley to the Mississippi River and up into Canada. • England (Great Britain) claimed the land along the Atlantic Ocean called it the thirteen colonies.

  23. Major Powers Exploring England/ GreatBritain France Spain Mexico, Texas, and the West Coast of U.S. United States colonies along the East Coast Ohio River Valley and Canada as as

  24. Exploration led to colonization of the new world which shifted wealth and power away from Mediterranean region to the countries of Western Europe toward Spain, England and France. Spain was enriched by American gold and silver. Spanish colonies were very successful in bringing wealth and pride to Spain. This led to England and France to start Exploration and colonization.

  25. Effects of Exploration • England rulers desired to stake a claim for lands and riches to match Spain’s wealth. • France set up a fur trade with Native American to gain wealth.

  26. Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange : exchange of plants, animals and diseases between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after 1492 Columbian Exchange Europe introduced New World introduced Sugar, wheat, oranges, grapes, and onions Horses, sheep, goats, cows, cats, and rats Diseases: smallpox, typhus, cholera, and measles Corn, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate Tobacco, Quinine turkey

  27. Now complete your Cause and Effect thinking Map Exploration

  28. Warm up: • Right below the timeline you need to define Colonization: establishment of settlers and traders from a nation in an area outside the nations boundaries; European nations established colonial empires for: Gold Gold Glory You are going to decorate this area.

  29. 8.2b Compare political, economic, religious, and social reasons for the establishment of the 13 English colonies. Economic ($$$) Social (way of life) includes religion Political (government)

  30. What did the Americas have to offer to the people Pushing them out of Europe What was pulling people away from Europe and pushing them to the New World? • Religious persecution • Strict government rule • Less resources • King nobles owned land • Very few opportunities Pull towards America What did Americans have to offer? • Religious freedom • Less restricted government • Beginning of self-rule • Untapped resources • Could purchase cheap land • Tons of opportunities

  31. What are the push and pull factors that influenced immigration to the New World? • The factors that pushed Europeans out of Europe are __________________________ and the pull factors that brought the immigrates to American are ____________

  32. Some migration is not always by choice but by force. Can you think of an example of forced migration? Do you think that if they were forced to move they are still immigrates? Why or Why not Once you decide go to the sign that says yes or no or undecided and be ready to support your choice.

  33. 8.2 B: compare political, economic ($), religious, and social reasons for the establishment of the 13 English colonies.

  34. The Political, economic, religious and social reasons for English Exploration Social Economic Political $$$$ making and spending money Way of life –how they lived day to day including religion Government --New Merchant class: wanted to get rich through overseas trade --Middle /Lower class: wanted a better life- could not afford to live in England. -- Unemployed farmers: wanted to own land Workers/Farmers: wanted to move up the social ladder. Wanted to escape the King’s strong control Get away from the nobles and the caste system England Higher class was forcing Debtors, prisoner and to get them out of England Rivalry with Spain and wanting England to be better. Religion Immigrants came to practice their own religious beliefs without persecution

  35. European Peoples Gold reason for coming to New World . New Merchant class wanted to get rich through overseas trade. Middle/Lower class: wanted a better life and could not afford to live in England but could in the new world. Unemployed farmers wanted to own land

  36. The second G: Glory • Spanish colonies were very successful in brining wealth and pride to Spain, so England and France wanted the same thing. • Workers/Farmers: wanted to move up the social ladder.