The Age of Exploration Chapter 13
Exploration and Expansion Motives and Means • First Portugal and Spain • Then Dutch Republic, England and France For 1000’s of years, they had remained in one area of the world. Europeans had always been fascinated with ASIA.
Exploration and Expansion It started with Marco Polo’s expedition to China and the book he wrote (The Travels) He studied Genghis and Kublai Khan. Of course, he book was read by many Europeans
Exploration and Expansion One of those readers was Christopher Columbus. The Ottoman Empire had made it difficult to travel east. So, the idea of gaining access to Asia by sea.
Exploration and Expansion Motives for Expansion • First • Economic motives • Spice trade was very important because these spices were used to flavor and preserve food • High hopes of finding precious metals
Exploration and Expansion • Second • Religious motives • Introduction of Catholicism to these native people. Example of this was Hernan Cortes “God, Glory, and Gold” was the motto
Exploration and Expansion With European monarchs increasing their wealth and stability, they could now focus outside their borders. Europeans had also increased their technology that enabled them to start this “New Global Age”
Exploration and Expansion Portugal started the exploration. Searching for a shorter route to India and China, Prince Henry sent a fleet along the African coast. 1st- Bartholomeu Diaz- Cape of Good Hope
Exploration and Expansion 2nd – Vasco De Gama Rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed onto India. Carried spices back to Portugal and gained a huge profit by selling his spices.
Exploration and Expansion Portuguese fleets returned and defeated Muslim shipping to take over the spice trade. Portugal wanted more and would expand their trade to China
Exploration and Expansion Portugal soon explored the Spice Islands, which is off the coast of Vietnam. Portugal signed a treaty with the ruler of the Spice Island to export spices. Portugal’s weakness was that it did not have the power nor the desire to colonize the islands
Voyage to the Americas While Portugal was sailing eastward, the Spaniards were wanting to sail westward. Christopher Columbus, Italian, convinced Queen Isabella that he could sail west and hit Asia. In October of 1492, he reached America NOT Asia.
Voyage to the Americas Columbus made three more voyages and explored most of the Caribbean islands in which he name the “Indies” The race was on now Spain and Portugal feared dominance
Voyage to Americas Fearing dominance, both Spain and Portugal agreed on an imaginary line through the Atlantic Ocean. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Portugal – East trade routes Spain- West trade routes
Voyage to the Americas The exploration age had taken off when it was realized the Columbus had discovered a new land. John Cabot explored the New England coastline for England Amerigo Vespucci made several voyages and documented what he saw.
Spanish Empire Spain had gone to Middle America, which was lead by Hernan Cortez. Francisco Pizarro, from Spain, had lead an expedition into South America Both conquered the native Americans
Economic Impact and Competition Spain and Portugal were now expanding their territories and colonizing. Establishing what was theirs and laying claim to new land meant competition and huge economic status
Economic Impact and Competition • Spain- Middle and South America Columbian Exchange was the exchange of plants and animals between the New World and Old World. • Portugal- Eastward Establishing Asia as a major trading ground and challenging the Italian states for supremacy.
Economic Impact and Competition By the end of the 1500’s The Dutch established the West Indies Company to compete with Spain and Portugal. West Indies Company was located in present day New York state.
Economic Impact and Competition By the 1600’s and 1700’s England had established Virginia and Massachusetts Bay Colony France had established Canada and Louisiana
Trade, Colonies, & Mercantilism Colony is a settlement of people who are linked to the parent country through trade and direct government control Mercantilism is a principle that was prominent throughout the 1700’s It meant that a Balance of Trade or same number of imports and exports
Competition Since the beginning of exploration, there is a competition for land and dominance. This will set the tone for future expansion, war, and ruin.
Slavery Slavery had been a part of history since civilization. Africa had been a primary source for slavery. Its main source was Southwest Africa. Most were used as domestic servants BUT that will soon change.
Slavery With the discovery of new land, Spain was first to bring shipments of slaves from Africa. There was a three way trade. Spain traded guns and clothes to Africa for slaves Slaves were taken back to America for sugar, tobacco, and raw cotton
Slavery Which was sold to Europeans for money and supplies. This process was called the Middle Passage