The Age of Exploration Why Explore?
NiñaSpanishCaravelMore streamline ship design – narrow and longer55-94 tons
Introduction • The Age of Exploration lasted from about 1418 to 1620 • During this time European Explorers made many daring voyages that would change world history. • Europeans were initially in search of sea routes to Asia: The Indies • Christopher Columbus sailed west in search of such a route
1492 • Instead Columbus landed in the Americas but thought he was in the Indies • Eventually Columbus would realize that he had found what he and others would come to call the “New World.”
Motives for ExplorationWhy did exploration flourish in the 1400’s? • The desire to find new trade routes to Asia • Europeans were particularly interested in spices to preserve food and disguise the taste of rotten meat! • The Eastern Trade of spices and other goods was controlled by Muslim and Italian Traders • Europeans wanted to break their monopoly and lower prices!
Other Motives • Explorers had the chance to earn great fame and wealth • Opportunity for new knowledge • Adventure • Honor of one’s home country by bringing new lands and colonies • A country or an area ruled by another country • The Spread of Christianity
Advances in Technology and Knowledge • The Age of Exploration began in the midst of the Renaissance as a result a number of advances made it easier to venture into the unknown • Cartography: The art and science of mapmaking • Guide to Geography by Ptolemy was translated from the Greek in the early 1400’s. This book sparked new interest in mapmaking.
Portolan Chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, 1500; Western Hemisphere only
Martin Waldseemüller's World Map of 1507, the FIRST map to use the name "America" to label the New World
Portugal • Prince Henry “The Navigator”: Encouraged exploration and directed many expeditions • 1418 - Henry started a School of Navigation • West Coast of Africa • 1488 - Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to go around the tip of Africa.
Portugal Continued • 1497: Vasco da Gama rounded the tip of Africa and made it to India • Arrived in the port of Calicut, India in May of 1498 • Obtained a FULL load cinnamon and pepper. • On the return trip da Gama lost half of his ships and many of his crew members to disease. • Despite these facts the cargo brought back paid for the voyage many times over.
Aztec Empire • Aztecs (Native Americans from Mexico) • Empire was vast and wealthy • Capitol city was Tenochtitlan • Sacrifice human hearts to appease the gods
Cortes meets Montezuma • Cortes landed at the perfect time. • One Reed • Quetzalcoatl (keht sahl koh AHTL) • Sacrifice human hearts to appease the gods
Hernan Cortes • 1519 Cortes landed in Mexico and reached the Aztec capitol • Aztec ruler Montezuma heard of strange new men • Tall, yellow haired men wearing shiny metal from head to toe on strange four-legged monsters
Importance of Horses in New World • The Tainos had never seen such a creature, it was an imposing and frightening sight for this peaceable culture to see a man mounted on a horse, it looked like man and beast had fused as one. They also believed that the horse was divine and feared that it fed on human flesh. Something that was promoted by the Spanish, who went out of their way to bury dead animals in order to promote the horses divinity and fear amongst the conquered people. • The Spanish settlers in Jamaica developed huge ranches and from the horses and donkeys that were brought over from Spain with the first settlers, started breeding mules. It was horses from Jamaica that the Spanish Conquistadores such as Cortez and Pizarro, took to the mainland. To quote one Conquistador “Horses are the most necessary things in the New Country because they frighten the enemy most, and after God to them belongs the victory!”
Are They Gods? • Montezuma wondered if Cortes was Quetzalcoatl (keht sahl koh AHTL) • Aztec god who would return from the East • Cortes welcomed to the city • Discovered gold in a secret room • Fearing safety took Montezuma hostage and left for coast. • Montezuma was killed (unknown killer)
Siege of Tenochtitlan • Cortes took the capitol • Reasons for victory • Superior weapons (guns, cannons, armor, dogs, horses) • Made allies with Aztec enemies • Aztecs fought to wound, Spanish fought to kill • Disease • 60 years later, less than 10% of Aztecs remained
Francisco Pizarro • Inca Empire in Andes Mts. - South America • 1532 Pizarro granted permission to conquer Incas • Followed Cortes' lead • Emperor Atahualpa greeted Pizarro as a guest • Launched a surprise attack and kidnapped the emperor
End of Inca’s Empire • Incas paid the ransom in tons of gold and silver • Pizarro killed Atahualpa anyway • Inca Defeated quickly
Spain transformed • New wealth from Americas made Spain one of the richest and most powerful countries • Gold, silver – wealth • corn and potatoes - population boom • Chocolate and tobacco – luxury items
Bad News • Inflation – increase in supply of $ led to higher prices • Monarchs and wealthy spent money wastefully • Did not invest in Spain’s industries
Columbian Exchange • To Americas • Horses, cattle • disease