Aspects of Culture. Bell Ringer: How is each of us a product of our culture? What beliefs and traditions are held by the world’s great religions?. What is Culture. Culture refers to a people’s way of life, including how people meet their basic needs for food/shelter.
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Aspects of Culture Bell Ringer: How is each of us a product of our culture? What beliefs and traditions are held by the world’s great religions?
What is Culture • Culture refers to a people’s way of life, including how people meet their basic needs for food/shelter. • Includes: Language, literature, music, art, religion • Customs: things people do, how they dress, celebration of holidays
What is Culture Cont’d • Institutions: organizations developed by society to make social roles clear/take care of social needs. • Examples: Families, Schools, Government, army, hospitals, churches.
Aspects of Culture • Family Structure: how generations live together, decisions are made. • Social Structure: how society is organized into different social groups or classes.
Thought Spot • How does aspects of culture effect your daily lives, your family, and social structure?
Aspects of Culture Cont’d • Multicultural Society: various ethnic/cultural groups. • Some societies give minority ethnic/religious groups more rights/opportunities • Gender Roles: assigned to men/women. • Example, woman caring for children, do household chores.
Major World Religion Characteristics • Set of beliefs about the meaning of life, nature of universe and existence of the supernatural. • Set of Customs/practice relate to the worship of God (or several gods) w/a set of rules for the conduct of a good life. • An organization which oversees the conduct of religious practices. • Designation of sacred or holy places. • Vatican City – Catholicism; Mecca - Islam
Major Beliefs of Hinduism • Many gods, each created by one supreme being. • Reincarnation: After death, soul is reborn as another living thing. • Located in modern India.
Major Beliefs of Hinduism Cont’d • Karma: Live a good life, reborn in a higher caste system (hereditary social classes). • Sacred Objects: Ganges River and the Cow • Hindus do not eat beef.
Major Beliefs of Buddhism • Leading religion in Tibet, Japan, Thailand, and China. • Follows the teachings of Buddha. • Philosophy of self-denial and meditation • Believe in reincarnation • Dalia Lama- Head of Religion
Major Beliefs of Buddhism Cont’d • Eightfold Path: give up wealth, act worthily, live righteously, and respect all living things. • Nirvana: achieve final reincarnation by following the Eightfold Path. • Four Noble Truths: explain life’s meaning—ex. Selfish desires are the source of suffering.
Key Features of Judaism • 1st religion to teach monotheism – belief in 1 God. • History of Jewish people found in Old Testament. • 10 Commandments: moral code of conduct, live justly. • 1 God, honor one’s parents • Do not kill, steal, commit adultery
Judaism • Torah- Religious Book • Dietary Laws- What can and can’t be eaten and how foods must be prepared (kosher) • Synagogue- Place of Worship
Major Beliefs in Christianity • Begun by Jesus, a Jew born in Bethlehem. • Declaration of Faith • Jesus is son of God, sent to save mankind. • Rose from the dead, went to Heaven. • Christians will be saved, go to Heaven • Have faith in Jesus, treat others with love/respect.
Major Beliefs in Christianity Cont’d • Includes Catholics, Protestants, and Eastern Orthodox Christians. • Major influences are found in Europe, the Americas, areas of Africa and Asia. • World’s most popular religion.
Beliefs of Islam • Founded by Mohammed around 600 A.D. • Believe in one God, Allah. • Qu’ran: Holy Book containing God’s message as given to Mohammed.
Beliefs of Islam Cont’d • Five Pillars of Faith: religious requirements • Confession Of faith- There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet”. • Prayer- five times a day facing mecca • Charity- Must give money to the poor and pay taxes to Mosque • Fasting- Cannot eat or drink during month of Ramadan, during day • Pilgrimage- Must take a pilgrimage to mecca • Concentrated in the Middle East, South/Southeast Asia. • Dietary Laws- What can and be eaten and how foods must be prepared
Beliefs of Sikhism • Found mostly in Northern India. • Combines beliefs from Hinduism/Islam. • Believe in reincarnation. • Believe in 1 God. • Everyone has equal status in eyes of God. • Men do not cut their hair and wear turbans.
ANIMISM • A belief that many things in nature have their own spirit—animals, plants and places • Medicine men-contact spirit world • Ceremonies- passage from boy to man • One of the earliest forms of religion • Practiced by tribes in Sub Saharan Africa, Native Americans, ancient Japan (formed into Shintoism)