Download
gerard t hooft n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Gerard ’t Hooft PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Gerard ’t Hooft

Gerard ’t Hooft

141 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Gerard ’t Hooft

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Gerard ’t Hooft Utrecht University The Nature of MATTER and FORCES Stockholm, August 27, 2004

  2. Sir James Clark Maxwell • 1831-1879 • - Statistical Mechanics • Thermodynamics • Improved the mathematical • formulation of Michael • Faraday’s theories of • electricity and magnetic • lines of force ...

  3. The electro-magnetic force

  4. Albert Einstein 1879 – 1955 1905: - Photo-electric effect - Special Relativity - Brownian motion; statistical mechanics 1915: General relativity (gravitation)

  5. Special Relativity

  6. Quantum Mechanics

  7. the ATOM

  8. QUANTUM the ATOM

  9. Quantum Mechanics Special Relativity + = Elementary Particle Physics ( = High Energy Physics = Quantum Field Theory )

  10. 1969 photon Leptons anti- leptons This is only 4 % of the matter in the Universe ! (See Licia Verde’s talk) Hadrons mesons baryons anti- baryons anti- 

  11. Known from experiment the forces Forces: the ELECTRO MAGNETIC force the STRONG force the WEAK force

  12. The Yang-Mills Field C.N. Yang and R.L. Mills, 1954

  13. Yang - Mills quanta o o - + o + - neutron proton + o

  14. Multiplets According to the Yang-Mills-theory P N Nucleons pions Yang-Mills bosons

  15. Peter Higgs

  16. Breaking Rotational Symmetry THIS becomes an essential degree of freedom ... And THIS is the Higgs degree of Freedom … turning the gauge force carriers massive !

  17. S.L. Glashow St. Weinberg A. Salam

  18. Weinberg’s lepton model Weinberg Model Anti – Leptons Gauge bosons Leptons Higgs

  19. The hadronic particles … Antiproton Proton Lambda Pi-plus Pi-zero

  20. The Yang-Mills Color Field Quantum Chromo Dynamics

  21. weak u u u d d d c c c charm strong top t t t b b b bottom Quark species quarks Antiquarks up down strange s s s

  22. Generation I Generation II Generation III Leptons Quarks g Gauge Bosons The Standard Model Higgs Graviton

  23. Total cross sections CESR DORIS PEP PETRA TRISTAN

  24. The fourth force: Gravitation

  25. Planck length : Today’s Limit … The highway across the desert GUTs

  26. SU(4) x SU(2) x SU(2) Further unification SO(10) 3 generations

  27. The SuperString Theory

  28. A Black Hole