Week 6 Doors and Windows
Objectives • This chapter discusses doors and windows • Specifically discussed are types, sizes, plan and elevation symbols, construction details, residential schedules, and code requirements
Doors • Provide access, privacy, security, fire protection, and ventilation • Designers select doors to meet appearance, functionality, security, energy efficiency, and building code criteria • Made of wood, wood composites, steel, fiberglass composite, or mixtures • Steel doors can have wood veneers • Other choices: hollow core, solid core, flush, paneled, louvered, or fire-rated
Types Figure 9-2 Parts of a panel door.
Swing (Hinged) • Hinged on one side and swings in or out of the room Figure 9-3 Exterior swing door with sidelights and transom window.
Swing Variations • A double door is two swing doors hung from opposite jambs in one opening Figure 9-10 Interior double door.
Sliding • Sliding doors are placed where there is not enough floor space for swing doors, such as in small rooms or tight corners Figure 9-14 Sliding doors.
Accordion • Operates like a folding door but has multiple leaves Figure 9-18 Accordion door
Overhead Sectional • Large door made of wood or steel that is assembled in sections and moves vertically along a track Figure 9-19 Overhead sectional door.
Revolving • Commercial and industrial buildings; heavy traffic but minimal drafts and energy loss Figure 9-20 Revolving door
Cased Opening • Opening with no door Figure 9-21 Opening types. The plan symbol does not distinguish between rectangular and curved openings.
Door Sizes • Common size is 6'-8" tall, 3'-0" wide and 1¾" thick • Wheelchair-accessible homes entry should have a 34" clearance around it • The rough opening, or hole in the wall, for an interior door is usually framed 3" higher than the door height and 2 ½" more than the door width to provide space for the frame
Code Considerations • Egress doors • Continuous, unobstructed path of travel to move occupants through a building Figure 9-23 Opening clearance requirements for a means of egress door
Door Hardware • Exit devices • Bolts • Closers • Holders • Stops • Anything that operates and holds a door in place • Hinges • Locks • Handles • Knobs
Windows • Provide light, air, privacy, security, a view, and sometimes emergency egress • Fenestration: arrangement, proportioning, and design of windows and doors in a building • Sash: window glass plus the frame, two rails and two stiles • A trim, or casing, is placed around the sash • The sash may contain muntins
Glazing • Glazing, glass choices include: • Obscure • Single double- and triple-pane • Laminated • Tempered • Insulating • Low-emissive • Gas-filled • Impact • Art
Types • Hopper • Jalousie • Pivot • Bay • Bow • Skylight • Double hung • Fixed • Slider • Casement • Awning
Types (cont’d.) Figure 9-33 Casement window.
Types (cont’d.) Figure 9-39 Jalousie window.
Types (cont’d.) Figure 9-52 Bay and bow window sizes and arrangements.
Sizes • Rough opening, unit, sash and glass Figure 9-56 Chart of common window unit sizes.
Selection and Placement • Align the tops on multistory buildings • Glass area should be at least 20 percent of the room’s floor area • Ventilation windows should be at least 10 percent of the floor area • Placement on the south walls will bring in more light, but also will bring in more heat • Several small windows on multiple walls illuminate a room more evenly
Selection and Placement (cont’d.) • Windows high on a wall provide more light penetration than windows placed low • Windows placed opposite each other attract cross-breezes • Like mirrors, large expanses of glass can make a room look larger • Design window openings to match standard window sizes • Place windows to reveal the best views
Door and Window Construction Details • The head is the top, the jambs are the sides and the sill is the bottom Figure 9-65 Door framing. Figure 9-66 Window framing.
Hardware • Screws, hinges, knobs, screens, and other hardware are usually included in construction detail drawings • Finished floor surface on either side of an interior door must be the same elevation as the threshold • Threshold hardware strip must be beveled • Codes require exit door hardware to be easily used with one hand • Closers to make a door self-closing
Summary • Doors and windows are important building components that come in many types and sizes • Important to know the rudiments of their construction so you can draft them properly • Symbols and details tell the reader where they are located, what they look like, and how they operate