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The Greek City States
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  1. The Greek City States • I. Early Greeks

  2. A. Land & Sea • Balkan Peninsula -Divided by short mountain ranges • Seas provide for trade

  3. B. Early Greek Peoples* • Minoans – earliest known peoples • Traders and sailors • Accomplishments: • Writing system • Frescos • Running water

  4. 3. Polis (City-States)* • Centered around a fort • Consisted of city, lands & farms surrounding c. Represented 1). Geographical territory 2). Community 3). Political & economic independence

  5. d. Similarities 1). Citizenship: males born in Greece 2). fort built on acropolis (hill) 3). agora (marketplace)

  6. e. Separate identity 1). Government & laws 2). Calendar 3). Money 4). Weights & measurements

  7. f. Same traits 1). Language (Greek) 2). Religious practices 3). Festivals

  8. II. Greek Society

  9. A. Greek Culture • 1. Religious beliefs • a. Purposes • 1). Explain nature • 2). Explain irrational actions • 3). Benefits for living • 4). Afterlife is unimportant

  10. b. Myths* • 1). Rationalization of world

  11. 2). Oracles - priests & priestesses • a). Translate the wishes of the gods

  12. c. Pleasing the gods* • 1). Show strength & bravery • a). Olympic Games honor Zeus

  13. 2. Literature* • a.Homer: Iliad • 1). Trojan War

  14. b. Homer: Odyssey • 1). Post war story

  15. B. Government • 1. Aristocracies* • a. Ruled by privileged class / group of nobles

  16. 3. Hoplite • a. Wealthy non-aristocrat soldiers

  17. 4. Tyrants • a. Took control w/ people’s support • c. Increased trade • d. Became unjust • e. Tyrant: someone who abuses power w/ brutality

  18. 5. Popular government • a. Democracy - government by the people • b. Limited participation

  19. III. Sparta & Athens

  20. A. Sparta • 1. . Government • a. 2 kings • 1). Lead army • 2). Conduct religious ceremonies

  21. b. Ephors* • 1). 5 yearly elected men • 2). Charged w/ public affairs • 3). Guide education

  22. 2. Social Classes • a. Aristocrats (equals) • b. Peroicci (half citizens)* • 1). Free, tax paying • 2). Artisans & Merchants • 3). Served in military

  23. c. Helots - “captured” • 1). Worked the land • 2). Enslaved people owned by city-state • 3). 1/2 crops to land owner (aristocrats)

  24. 4. Basic beliefs • a. Change is bad • b. Be the strongest military power

  25. B. Athens • 1. Government • a. Monarchy • b. Oligarchy • 1). Small wealthy ruling class

  26. Direct Democracy: all citizens participate in government decisions • f. 508 bce – Cleisthenes • 1) Direct Democracy* • 2) Council of 500 • a) 10 tribes - 50 men • b) 1 yr term - no more than 2 • c) Proposed laws to assembly • d) Athenian born men only Representative Democracy: elected representatives govern

  27. IV. Daily life in Athens

  28. A. Athenian Economy • Farming • Trade • Public works* • Money spent on public buildings

  29. 3. Men • 7 y.o. – schooling • Pedagogue taught manners • 18 y.o. - formal citizen

  30. 4. Women* • No rights: 1. No property rights 2. Not in public w/o permission

  31. C. Education 1. Memorization • 2. Sophists - open schools for older boys* • a. Ethics: good/bad, moral duty • b. Rhetoric: public speaking / debate

  32. V. Greek Expansion

  33. A. Persian Wars • Persians attempt to expand west • Battle of Thermopylae – story of 300 Spartans (Greece loses) • Battle at Salamis – Persians defeated by Athenian navy*

  34. B. Delian League • 1. Defensive league • 2. Members gain benefits, lose independence • 3. Pericles uses money to benefit Athens*

  35. D. Peloponnesian War (431 bc)

  36. 1. Athens & Corinth fight over trade • 2. Athens & Sparta rivals • 3. Sparta lays siege to Athens • a. Sparta joins with Persia to stop Athenian supplies • 4. No unity for Greece

  37. VI. Greek Art • The Golden Age • “Beauty for the sake of beauty.”

  38. A. Architecture • 1. Parthenon - temple to Athena atop the Acropolis • a. Perfectly balanced

  39. Parthenon Interior Temple to Athena*

  40. B. Painting • 1. Subject • a. Mythological events • 2. Style • a. Contour & depth (light/shade) • b. Showed simplicity and balance*

  41. C. Sculpture • 1. Realistic & proportionate*

  42. D. Greek Ideals • 1. Glorified the human being • 2. Pride in city-states • 3. Belief in harmony, balance, order & moderation • 4. Belief in combining beauty & usefulness

  43. VII. Philosophers & Writers* • Philosophy: the study of basic questions of reality and human existence • Began a new way of thinking about the world and society • Cosmologists – studied nature of the universe*

  44. A. Socrates • 1. Education is key to personal growth • 2. Socratic Method - learning through questioning • 3. Students should learn to think for themselves*

  45. B. Plato • 1. Student of Socrates • 2. Government should be aristocracy* • (intellectual upper class)

  46. C. Aristotle • 1. Student of Plato • 2. Logical study leads to truth • 3. Ethics - what brings happiness

  47. D. Writing history • 1. Herodotus - Father of History • a. Noted observed vs. retold • 2. Thucydides • a. History should be fair and accurate*

  48. E. New Ideas • a. Hippocrates – bases medicinal treatment on reason not magic* • b. Thucydides -

  49. VIII. Alexander the Great