WMD/TERRORISMAWARENESS Program developed by: Marc Rudder KCTCS-State Fire/Rescue Training Area 13 Coordinator
OBJECTIVES • Define terrorism. • Define weapons of mass destruction. • Describe WMD tactics and targets. • Describe terror incidents in the United States. • Describe types of weapons of mass destruction.
WHAT IS TERRORISM? Terrorism can be described as the unlawful use of violence or threats of violence to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, to further political or social objectives. CODE OF FEDERALREGULATIONS 28CFRSECTION 0.85
ULTIMATE GOAL To produce feelings of terror in a population or group.
FBI CLASSIFICATION OF TERRORISM • DOMESTIC – Acts are committed within the United States by individuals of groups that operate entirely within the US and are not influenced by any foreign interests. • INTERNATIONAL – Includes any acts that transcend international boundaries.
WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION/WMD Devices used by terrorist which can cause maximum damage to property or people.
WMD TACTICS • Terrorists aim to instill fear and panic among the general population and to disrupt daily ways of life. • Choose method of attack that will make the desired statement or achieve maximum results.
WMD TARGETS • SYMBOLIC TARGETS • Places of Worship • Embassy • Monument • Prominent Government Building
WMD TARGETS • SIGNIFICANT TARGETS TO THE TERRORIST’S CAUSE • Example: Economic Turmoil • Interfere with transportation, trade, or commerce.
WMD TARGETS • CIVILIAN TARGETS • Arenas and Stadiums • Airports • Schools • Shopping Malls • Theme Parks
WMD TARGETS • CYBERTERRORISM TARGETS • Banking and Finance Computer Systems • Business Computer Systems • Court Computer Systems • Government Computer Systems • Law Enforcement Computer Systems • Military Computer Systems
MAJOR INCIDENTS IN U.S. • SEPTEMBER 1984 – Dalles, Oregon • To influence local elections, a religious sect spread Salmonella on salad bars in four restaurants. The result was 750 cases of Salmonella. • February 1993 – New York City • A large explosive device was detonated in a van parked in the underground storage area of the World Trade Center. The result was six workers killed and more than 1000 injured.
MAJOR INCIDENTS IN U.S. (CONT.) • APRIL 1995 – OKLAHOMA CITY, OK • The Alfred E. Murrah Federal Building was demolished by a truck bomb that also killed 167 people. • 1978-1995 – UNITED STATES • Over a period of 17 years, the Unabomber (Theodore Kaczynski) mailed at least 16 packages containing explosives to university professors, corporate executives, and other targeted individuals. These attacks killed 3 individuals and injured 23 others.
MAJOR INCIDENTS IN U.S. (CONT.) • JULY 1996 – ATLANTA, GEORGIA • A pipe bomb exploded in Centennial Olympic Park, killing one person and injuring 111 others. • JANUARY 1997 – ATLANTA, GEORGIA • Following the bombing of an abortion clinic in suburban Atlanta, a secondary device exploded, wounding several emergency responders. A month later, another secondary device was found and disarmed at the scene of a bombing at a gay nightclub in Atlanta.
MAJOR INCIDENTS IN U.S. (CONT.) • JANUARY 1998 – BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA • A bomb killed a police officer who was providing security at an abortion clinic. • OCTOBER 1998 – VAIL, COLORADO • Arson destroyed eight buildings at a ski resort. An extremist environmental group opposed to expansion of the resort claimed responsibility.
MAJOR INCIDENTS IN U.S. (CONT.) • SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 – NEW YORK CITY/WASHINGTON D.C./PENNSYLVANIA • Terrorists hijacked four commercial jets. Two were flown into the World Trade Center, one struck the Pentagon, and the fourth crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. More than 3000 people died in the various incidents. • FALL 2001 – UNITED STATES • Five people died after letters containing anthrax virus were sent to various locations in the eastern United States.
EXAMPLES OF WMD WEAPONS • Chemical • Biological • Radiological • Conventional Weapons • Explosives and Incendiary Devices
CHEMICAL WEAPONS • CHOKING AGENT – Chlorine, Cyanide • NERVE AGENT – Tabun (GA), Soman (GD), Sarin (GB), V-agent (VX) • BLISTER AGENT – Sulfur Mustard, Lewisite • PULMONARY AGENT – Phosgene, Chlorine • METABOLIC AGENT – Cyanide
BIOLOGICAL AGENT • ANTHRAX – Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis • PLAGUE – Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis which is commonly found on rodents • SMALLPOX – Highly infectious disease caused by the virus Variola
RADIOLOGICAL • Radioactive materials release energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or energy particles. • In recent years, the radiation dispersaldevice or “dirty bomb” has emerged as a source of serious concern in terms of terrorism. This would involve packing a radiation source around a conventional explosive device to contaminate a wide area.
RADIOLOGICAL (CONT.) TYPES OF RADIATION: • ALPHA – Quickly loses energy and a sheet of paper or clothing will stop these particles • BETA – More powerful will travel 10 to 15 feet. Metal, plastic, and glass can stop this type of energy. • GAMMA – Travels significant distances, penetrate most materials, and through the body. Concrete, earth, and lead (dense materials) will stop this type of energy.
CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS • GUNS • KNIVES
EXPLOSIVES AND INCENDIARY DEVICES • AMMONIUM NITRATE FERTILIZER AND FUEL OIL (ANFO) – Explosives that can be purchased prepared or can be home-made. Used in Oklahoma City bombing. • IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVISE (IED) – Any explosive devise that is fabricated from readily available materials. • Pipe bomb • Letter bomb • Truckload of explosives
EXPLOSIVE OR INCENDIARY DEVICE (CONT) • INCENDIARY DEVICE – A device or mechanism used to start a fire or explosion. • Mol-a-tov cocktail
HOMELAND SECURITY COLOR-CODED THREAT LEVEL SYSTEM • SEVERE – (Red) Severe risk of terrorist attacks. • HIGH – (Orange) High risk of terrorist attacks. • ELEVATED – (Yellow) Significant risk of terrorist attacks. • GUARDED – (BLUE) General risk of terrorist attacks. • LOW – (GREEN) Low risk of terrorist attacks.
SUMMARY This presentation described Terrorism and WMD incidents. The following topics were covered: • WMD Tactics • WMD Targets • Terror Incidents (within the U.S.) • Types of Weapons of Mass Destruction
Material contained in presentation obtained from: • Abel, Chad, Michael Anderson, et al. Fundamentals of Fire Fighter Skills. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2009. 894-915.