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CHAPTER 19…The Postwar Boom. Identifications. 162. GI Bill of Rights-US Congress passed Servicemen’s Readjustment Act in 1944…ease WWII veterans’ return to civilian life…college tuition, low interest guaranteed federal loans—bought homes, farms or set up businesses.

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162. GI Bill of Rights-US Congress passed Servicemen’s Readjustment Act in 1944…ease WWII veterans’ return to civilian life…college tuition, low interest guaranteed federal loans—bought homes, farms or set up businesses.
  • 163. suburbs-small residential communities surrounding cities.
164. “the affluent society”-many Americans prospered in the economy of the 1950’s…as defined by economist John Kenneth Galbraith.
  • 165. “the Buck Stops Here”-plaque on H.S Truman’s desk…he had ability to make difficult decisions and to accept responsibility for their consequences.
166. Taft-Hartley Act-’47, US Congress passed over H.S.T’s veto-overturned many rights won by labor unions in New Deal & ignored many of his domestic plans
  • 167. Pres. Comm. on Civil Rights-’46, recommended Congress pass anti-lynching law, ban poll tax & create permanent Commission…Congress refused-’48, Truman E.O. integrated armed forces and end to discrimination in hiring government employees-beginning of fed govt commitment to dealing with racial issues!!
168. Dixiecrats-Southern Democrats who opposed H.S.T’s emphasis on civil rights...”States’ Rights Democratic Party”-nominated Senator Strom Thurmond in election of ’48…H.S.T challenged Congress to pass legislation…it didn’t…Give ‘em hell, Harry, denounced “do nothing, 80th Congress” and defeated Republican challenger, Thomas Dewey in an upset.
169. the Fair Deal-H.S.T.’s ambitious economic plan-extension of New Deal…compulsory health insurance & crop subsidy to help farmers-Northern Demos/Repubs/Dixiecrats defeated in congress…DID: raise minimum from $.40 to $.75/hour, added 10M people to Social Security; flood control & irrigation projects; slums clean-up and low-income housing.
170. “I Like Ike”-stalemate in Korean War and rising tide of McCarthyism elected D.D. Eisenhower (Rep) in Election of 1952…defeated Demo Adali Stevenson…Ike chose Richard M. Nixon as V-P…Nixon was accused on having secret slush fund…
  • 171. “Checkers speech”- Nixon’s faced 58M Americans on TV…denied any wrong doing-talked about his daughters and his dog, Checkers.
172. Brown v. Topeka BofEd-’54 US Supreme Court ruled that public schools must be integrated…overturned Plessy v.Ferguson’s separate but equal provision.
  • 173. conglomerates-major corporation that includes number of smaller companies in unrelated industries.
174. franchise-company that offers similar products or services in many locations…Mickey D’s (aka McDonald’s)
  • 175. “The Organization Man”-book told how companies would give personality tests to find “company people” who would fit into corporate culture…teamwork, cooperation and loyalty keys
176. the baby boom-returning WWII soldiers contributed to unprecedented population explosion…late ’40’s-early ’60’s the birthrate (live births per 1000 people) soared…’57-one baby born every 7 seconds…
  • 177. Dr. Jonas Salk-developed vaccine for crippling disease poliomyelitis-polio…FDR!
178. “key figure in all suburbia”-Time magazine described the homemaker/mother role.
  • 179. Interstate Highway Act-”automania” led to need for more roads…’56, Ike signed I.H. Act-authorized building of nationwide highway network-41T miles of expressways…new suburbs farther from cities+high speed, long haul trucking increased, new towns, helped unify the nation…defense-movement of military/weapons, etc.
180. consumerism-the buying of material goods-came to be equated with success.
  • 181. planned obsolescence-marketing strategy of manufacturers…designed products to be obsolete (wear out) in a short period of time.
182. mass media-means of communications that reach large audiences.
  • 183. FCC-’56, government agency that regulates and licenses TV, telephone, telegraph, radio and other communication industries.
184. the “beat” movement-centered in San Francisco, LA and New York…expressed non-conformity of artists, poets and writers-”beat” came to refer to a musical beat…followers-”beatniks”-shunned regular work with higher consciousness thru Zen, music and drugs…goals: not watching TV, not wearing suits, not owning home in suburbia and not working.
185. rock ‘n’ roll-music that’s both black and white-music that is American…Alan Freed-radio disc jockey played music…audience mostly white (music produced by black Americans)…
  • 186. Berry, Haley, Presley-famous R n R performers…heavy rhythm, simple melodies and lyrics captivated teenagers.
187. jazz music-music characterized by the use of improvisation…entertained audiences of all races…Nat King Cole, Lena Horne.
  • 188. White Flight-’50’s, millions of white Americans left cities for suburbs, taking economic resources & isolating themselves from other races and classes…at same time, rural poor migrated to inner cities.
189. urban renewal-to solve problem of dirty, crowded slums…National Housing Act of 1949-provide “decent home and suitable living environment for every American family”…tear down run-down neighborhoods & construct low-income housing…parking lots, Dodger Station=seldom enough new housing.
190. braceros-’42, Mexican hired hands allowed into the US to harvest agricultural crops…100s of thousands allowed in on short-term basis, expected to return to Mexico…many stayed
  • 191. termination policy-’53, US govt announced giving up responsibility Indian tribes…eliminated federal economic support, discontinued reservation system & distributed tribal lands among individual Indians…unable to find jobs due to discrimination and lack of training.