1 / 27

Chapter 23 Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 23 Acids, Bases, and Salts. Have you seen these?. Section 1: Acids & Bases. Acid - (H+) removed in H 2 O. Properties of Acids. Taste sour Corrosive and can burn skin React with litmus paper: red to yellow. Common Acids. Foods contains acids Citrus fruits  citric acid

Download Presentation

Chapter 23 Acids, Bases, and Salts

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 23Acids, Bases, and Salts

  2. Have you seen these?

  3. Section 1: Acids & Bases Acid - (H+) removed in H2O.

  4. Properties of Acids • Taste sour • Corrosive and can burn skin • React with litmus paper: red to yellow.

  5. Common Acids • Foods contains acids • Citrus fruits citric acid • Vinegar, or acetic acid, is in pickled foods 2. You have hydrochloric acid (HCl) in your stomach.

  6. Common Acids • Four acids vital to industry. • Sulfuric acid - used in car batteries and the manufacturing of fertilizers • Phosphoric acid - used to manufacture detergents, fertilizers, and soft drinks • Nitric acid - used to manufacture fertilizers and explosive • Hydrochloric acid – used to clean steel

  7. Bases Base - forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water. Compliments or opposites of acids

  8. Properties of Bases • Many are crystals • Feel slippery • Strong bases are corrosive • litmus paper turns blue-purple

  9. Common Bases • Ammonia & Sodium Hydroxide - are used in cleaners, fertilizers, rayon, nylon • Magnesium Hydroxide - medications • Aluminum Hydroxide – color fast fabrics

  10. Solutions of Acids and Bases • Acid describes compounds that can be ionized in water to form hydronium ions • Base describes compounds that can form hydroxide ions in solution • Solutions of acids and solutions of bases are electric conductors to some extent

  11. Discussion Questions • Why should a person never use taste testing to identify an acid or a base?

  12. Answers • Acids and Bases can be corrosive and cause damage to tissue • Sulfuric, phosphoric, nitric, hydrochloric

  13. Section 2 Strength of Acids and Bases The strength of an acid or a base depends on how completely a compound separates into ions when dissolving in water

  14. Strong Acids and Strong Bases • A strong acid ionizes (or loses H+) almost completely in solution • A strong base dissociates (or forms OH-) completely in solution • Equations for strong acids and bases use a single arrow indicating ions are formed • Strong acids and bases conduct more electricity than weak ones

  15. Weak Acids and Weak Bases • A weak acid/base only partly ionizes in solution • Equations for weak acids and bases use double arrows pointing in opposite directions, indicating an incomplete reaction • Dilute and concentrated are terms to describe the amount of acid or base dissolved

  16. pH of a Solution • pH - a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution or how acidic or basic it is • pH lower than 7 = acidic • pH greater than 7 = basic • pH exactly equal to 7 = neutral

  17. pH of a Solution • pH is determined by a universal indicator paper or pH meter • Buffers – solutions containing ions that react with additional acids or bases to minimize their effects on pH.

  18. Discussion Question • Is a strong acid the same thing as a concentrated acid? Why or Why Not?

  19. Answer • Not necessarily the same; strength refers to ionization in a solution while concentration refers to the amount of acid or base dissolved

  20. Section 3Salts

  21. Neutralization Chemical reaction between an acid and a base taking place in a water solution Hydronium ions from the acid combine with hydroxide ions from the base to produce neutral water

  22. Salts • Salt - compound formed when the negative ions from an acid combine with the positive ions of a base • Salt is essential for many animals • Other salt uses include manufacturing of paint, rubber, glass, soap, detergents, and dry cell batteries

  23. Titration • Used to determine the concentrations of an acidic or basic solution • A solution of known concentration is the standard solution • An acid/base indicator is added to an unknown solution • A color change that is constant is the end point.

  24. Soaps and Detergents Soaps • Are organic salts with polar and nonpolar ends. • The nonpolar, hydrocarbon end interacts with oil and dirt • The polar end helps oil and dirt dissolve in water Detergents • Form more soluble salts with the ions in hard water

  25. Esters • Come from alcohols that are not bases but have a hydroxyl (-OH) group • Esters are used in fruit flavorings and perfumes • Polyesters are synthetic fibers used to make fabrics

  26. Discussion Question • What are two ways salts can form?

  27. Answer • When an acid and a base combine their negative and positive ions • When an acid reacts with a metal

More Related