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Chapter 13. Instructional Approaches. Chapter 13 Key points. Instruction Approaches - various ways teachers can organize and deliver the content to children Six instructional approaches have been found useful in teaching: Direct Instruction Task teaching Guided discovery Peer teaching

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Instructional Approaches

chapter 13 key points
Chapter 13 Key points
  • Instruction Approaches - various ways teachers can organize and deliver the content to children
  • Six instructional approaches have been found useful in teaching:
      • Direct Instruction
      • Task teaching
      • Guided discovery
      • Peer teaching
      • Cooperative learning
      • Child‑designed instruction
chapter 13 key points1
Chapter 13 Key points
  • Variables affecting which instructional approach a teacher selects for a certain class at a certain time include:
      • Teacher beliefs
      • Goal of lessons
      • Skill and preference of teacher
      • Characteristics of students
      • Nature of content
      • Context of teaching
slide4

Instructional Approach

Goal

Teacher Skills

Student Characteristics

Content

Context

Direct instruction

Efficient skill learning

Clarity

Beginning learners

New students

Specific skills

Whole class

Task teaching

Skill learning + independence

Ability to monitor multifaceted environment

Independent working skills

Already learned skills; self-assessment; product-oriented tasks

Large spaces

Inquiry

Skill learning + problem solving

Questioning

Beginning learners

Exploration

Whole class

Cooperative learning

Skill learning + group interdependence; individual responsibility

Ability to design meaningful tasks

Independent working skills

Complex sequences; basic skills

Groups

Child-designed

Skill learning + self-responsibility

Ability to guide and monitor

Ability to use time wisely; independent working skills

Application of learned lessons

Groups

Peer teaching

Skill learning + cooperation

Active monitoring

Independent working skills

Simple, clear cues; limited performance

Large spaces

Large groups

Characteristics of Six Instructional Approaches

chapter 13 keypoints
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Direct Instruction
    • Most common approach
    • Teacher directs response of students, telling them what to do, showing them what to do and then directing their practice
    • Most effective approach when
      • Goal is to have students learn and perform a specific skill
      • Teacher is looking for a specific response
      • Teacher has limited experience working with a group students
      • There is limited time for organization
chapter 13 keypoints1
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Task Teaching
    • Structured approach allowing students to work alone or in partners to practice different specified tasks
    • Involves stations and task cards
    • Works well when students need to practice skills they have already been taught
    • Is effective if students:
      • Work well independently
      • Are able to function without close supervision
chapter 13 keypoints2
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Task Teaching (cont)
    • Effective if teacher
      • explains stations/tasks well beforehand
      • Makes managerial aspects clear
      • Frequently checks with students to see how they are doing
      • Start with only a few stations/tasks
chapter 13 keypoints3
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Guided Discovery
      • Entails teaching through questioning, encouraging children to think and problem solve
      • Two versions
        • Convergent InquiryChildren discover the same answer to a series of questions
        • Divergent InquiryChildren find multiple answers to a problem
chapter 13 keypoints4
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Guided Discovery (cont)
      • Advantages include, encouraging children to:
        • Think independently to discover new and different approaches to performing skill
        • Solve questions related to teamwork and strategy
        • Explore a movement then they are not yet ready to learn a mature version of the skill
chapter 13 keypoints5
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Peer Teaching
    • Uses peers in pairs/small groups to actively teach one another, the tasks the teacher planned and communicated to them
    • To be successful requires that
      • skill to be taught is simple
      • cues for observation clear
      • the performance easily measured
chapter 13 keypoints6
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Cooperative Learning
    • Group work is carefully designed to promote:
      • Group interdependence
      • Problem solving
      • Individual responsibility
      • Provide for skill learning
    • To be viable, should integrate psychomotor, cognitive and personal-social responsibility goals
    • Formats include “pairs-check”, “jigsaw” and “co-op,co-op” (Kagan, 1990)
chapter 13 keypoints7
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Child-designed Instruction
      • An approach allowing the child to be at the center of the learning activity, whilst teacher’s role is that of guide
      • Two strategies used
        • Child designed tasks
        • Contracts
      • To be successful, requires highly motivated and self-directed children, who have skills to work independently
      • Works well in dynamic situations after basic skills have been learned