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Chapter 13. Instructional Approaches. Chapter 13 Key points. Instruction Approaches - various ways teachers can organize and deliver the content to children Six instructional approaches have been found useful in teaching: Direct Instruction Task teaching Guided discovery Peer teaching

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Instructional Approaches

chapter 13 key points
Chapter 13 Key points
  • Instruction Approaches - various ways teachers can organize and deliver the content to children
  • Six instructional approaches have been found useful in teaching:
      • Direct Instruction
      • Task teaching
      • Guided discovery
      • Peer teaching
      • Cooperative learning
      • Child‑designed instruction
chapter 13 key points1
Chapter 13 Key points
  • Variables affecting which instructional approach a teacher selects for a certain class at a certain time include:
      • Teacher beliefs
      • Goal of lessons
      • Skill and preference of teacher
      • Characteristics of students
      • Nature of content
      • Context of teaching

Instructional Approach


Teacher Skills

Student Characteristics



Direct instruction

Efficient skill learning


Beginning learners

New students

Specific skills

Whole class

Task teaching

Skill learning + independence

Ability to monitor multifaceted environment

Independent working skills

Already learned skills; self-assessment; product-oriented tasks

Large spaces


Skill learning + problem solving


Beginning learners


Whole class

Cooperative learning

Skill learning + group interdependence; individual responsibility

Ability to design meaningful tasks

Independent working skills

Complex sequences; basic skills



Skill learning + self-responsibility

Ability to guide and monitor

Ability to use time wisely; independent working skills

Application of learned lessons


Peer teaching

Skill learning + cooperation

Active monitoring

Independent working skills

Simple, clear cues; limited performance

Large spaces

Large groups

Characteristics of Six Instructional Approaches

chapter 13 keypoints
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Direct Instruction
    • Most common approach
    • Teacher directs response of students, telling them what to do, showing them what to do and then directing their practice
    • Most effective approach when
      • Goal is to have students learn and perform a specific skill
      • Teacher is looking for a specific response
      • Teacher has limited experience working with a group students
      • There is limited time for organization
chapter 13 keypoints1
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Task Teaching
    • Structured approach allowing students to work alone or in partners to practice different specified tasks
    • Involves stations and task cards
    • Works well when students need to practice skills they have already been taught
    • Is effective if students:
      • Work well independently
      • Are able to function without close supervision
chapter 13 keypoints2
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Task Teaching (cont)
    • Effective if teacher
      • explains stations/tasks well beforehand
      • Makes managerial aspects clear
      • Frequently checks with students to see how they are doing
      • Start with only a few stations/tasks
chapter 13 keypoints3
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Guided Discovery
      • Entails teaching through questioning, encouraging children to think and problem solve
      • Two versions
        • Convergent InquiryChildren discover the same answer to a series of questions
        • Divergent InquiryChildren find multiple answers to a problem
chapter 13 keypoints4
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Guided Discovery (cont)
      • Advantages include, encouraging children to:
        • Think independently to discover new and different approaches to performing skill
        • Solve questions related to teamwork and strategy
        • Explore a movement then they are not yet ready to learn a mature version of the skill
chapter 13 keypoints5
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Peer Teaching
    • Uses peers in pairs/small groups to actively teach one another, the tasks the teacher planned and communicated to them
    • To be successful requires that
      • skill to be taught is simple
      • cues for observation clear
      • the performance easily measured
chapter 13 keypoints6
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Cooperative Learning
    • Group work is carefully designed to promote:
      • Group interdependence
      • Problem solving
      • Individual responsibility
      • Provide for skill learning
    • To be viable, should integrate psychomotor, cognitive and personal-social responsibility goals
    • Formats include “pairs-check”, “jigsaw” and “co-op,co-op” (Kagan, 1990)
chapter 13 keypoints7
Chapter 13 Keypoints
  • Child-designed Instruction
      • An approach allowing the child to be at the center of the learning activity, whilst teacher’s role is that of guide
      • Two strategies used
        • Child designed tasks
        • Contracts
      • To be successful, requires highly motivated and self-directed children, who have skills to work independently
      • Works well in dynamic situations after basic skills have been learned