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Bioethanol Production of 1 st and 2 nd Generation. 3 rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010 Sara Helmberger. Upper Austrian University of Applied Sciences Research and Development Ltd, Campus Wels. Content. Introduction World-leading bioethanol producing countries

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bioethanol production of 1 st and 2 nd generation

Bioethanol Productionof 1st and 2nd Generation

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010 Sara Helmberger

Upper Austrian University of Applied Sciences Research and Development Ltd, Campus Wels

content
Content
  • Introduction
  • World-leading bioethanol producing countries
  • Bioethanol production of 1st and 2nd generation
  • Various possible feedstocks
  • Production and processing technologies

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010

introduction
Introduction
  • Fossil fuels are responsible for 73 % of the CO2 production in the atmosphere
  • Extreme contribution to global warming
  • Interest in development of methods, reducing green house gases
  • Bioethanol as alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010

definition bioethanol
Definition Bioethanol
  • Ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, CH3-CH2-OH or EtOH
  • = Liquid biofuel
  • Advantages, compared to gasoline:- higher octane number- broader flammability limits- higher flame speeds- higher heats of vaporization- higher compression ratio- shorter burn time
  • Possible feedstocks:plant oils, sugar beets, cereals, organic waste, processed biomass
  • Disadvantages, compared to gasoline:- lower energy density- its corrosiveness- low flame luminosity- lower vapor pressure - miscibility with water

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010

world leading bioethanol producing countries
World-leading bioethanol producing countries
  • World-wide production of fuel ethanol more than tripled from 2000 until now
  • About 60% of global bioethanol production are obtained from sugar caneand 40% from other crops (e.g. maize)

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010

north american ethanol production
North American Ethanol production

The United States are with over 41 % the world´s leader in ethanol production

Feedstocks: maize wheat, barley, sorghum

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south american ethanol prodution
South American Ethanol prodution

South America contributes with roughly 35 % to world´s ethanol production, with Brazil being the leader country

Feedstock: sugar cane

~ 20 % exported to US, EU, others

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010

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european ethanol production
European Ethanol production

Europe contributes with 9 % to world´s ethanol production-> Comparable to the US ethanol market of roughly ten years ago

Plants in France, Spain, Sweden, UK, Austria (Pischelsdorf, Lower Austria)

In 2000, the EU introduced a Biofuel Directive

Commission of the European Communities (2007) -> binding minimal target of 10 % biofuels by 2020

Feedstock:wheat, sugar beet, waste from the wine industry

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european ethanol production1
European Ethanol production

Bioethanol Plant in Pischelsdorf, Lower Austria

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010

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production technology feedstocks
Production technologyFeedstocks

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010

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bioethanol production of 1 st generation
Bioethanol production of 1st generation

Major feedstocks for world´s ethanol production:

Sugar-containing feedstock: Sugar cane

Starchy feedstock: Maize

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bioethanol production of 1 st generation1
Bioethanol production of 1st generation

Starchy materials (e.g. maize)

US: 2 types of maize processing facilities:- Wet milling (since 1980s)- Dry grind (newer technology)

Starch = a polysaccharide carbohydrate, with a large number of sugar-molecules

Break down of the chains of this carbohydrate to obtain the single (individual) sugars -> Hydrolysis technique

Fermentation with microorganisms (e.g. yeasts)

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bioethanol production of 1 st generation2
Bioethanol production of 1st generation

Sugar-containing feedstocks

(e.g. sugar cane, beet molasses, sweet sorghum)

provide the single sugars (e.g. sucrose, glucose and fructose), which can be readily fermented by microorganisms (yeast) -> no hydrolysis is necessary

Brazil: sugar cane- harvest- pressing- Fermentation of sugar juice by microorganisms (yeast)

Europe: Beet molasses

Developing countries (e.g. Africa): Sweet sorghum

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bioethanol production of 2 nd generation
Bioethanol production of 2nd generation

Feedstocks: Alternative or lignocellulosic materials

= non food crops:- waste and remnant biomass - stalks of wheat and corn- wood- grass- straw

These most abundant reproducible feedstocks on Earth are of - high yields- low costs- good suitability for low quality land- low environmental impacts

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bioethanol production of 2 nd generation1
Bioethanol production of 2nd generation

Lignocellulosic biomass

3 basic polymers:- Cellulose- Hemicelluloses - Lignin

Processing of lignocellulosic material to bioethanol1. Pre-treatment2. Hydrolysis

3. Fermentation4. Product separation

3rd REBEL Partner Meeting, 27 May 2010

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bioethanol production of 2 nd generation2
Bioethanol production of 2nd generation

Pre-treatment

Size-reduction

Removal of structural and compositional impediments -> Lignocellulosic biomass is made more accessible for subsequent hydrolysis

Pre-treatment possiblities:- mechanical- chemical - biological pre-treatment- “Steam Explosion”

Steam Explosion:- Biomass is extruded at high temperature and pressure

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bioethanol production of 2 nd generation3
Bioethanol production of 2nd generation

Pre-treatment: Steam Explosion

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bioethanol production of 2 nd generation4
Bioethanol production of 2nd generation

Hydrolysis

= Saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass

Cellulose and Hemicellulose have to be broken down into single (individual) sugar molecules

Catalyst: - dilute acid - concentrated acid - enzymes (so-called cellulases)

Enzymatic hydrolysis- Cellulases are produced from both fungi and bacteria- Hydrolysis at mild conditions (50°C and pH 5.0)- Effective cellulose and hemicellulose breakdown

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bioethanol production of 2 nd generation5
Bioethanol production of 2nd generation

Fermentation

The hydrolysate (mixed sugar-solution) is then fermented by microorganisms (e.g. yeast)

The sugar-solution contains not only one kind of sugar, but several different kinds-> Microorganisms are required, that can convert all sugars to high yields of EtOH

Most effective producer of bioethanol: Saccharomyces cerevisiae- can ferment only one kind of sugar- metabolic engineered strain or adapted strain of yeast is required

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bioethanol production of 2 nd generation6
Bioethanol production of 2nd generation

Product separation, Distillation

Distillation - Bioethanol is separated from water - Ethanol is concentrated to about 95.6 %

Value-added co-products (e.g. lactic acid)- processing into plastics or other products

Lignin- usage in various value-added applications

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bioethanol usage
Bioethanolusage

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slide22

Thank you for your attention !

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