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Competency-Based Training Solutionsin a non-standardized world Capt. Kris Van den BerghVice-President Pilot Provisioning APATSSeptember 2009
Problem Definition • We fly safe airplanes • We are part of an industry that has established an expectation of safety in the traveling public. • Our airplanes are well designed. • The technology engineered into today’s aircraft substantially increases crew situational awareness and reduces crew workload. • Training methods and supporting evaluation criteria, in our view, are challenged to keep pace.
Problem Definition - 20% FAA US Data
Problem Definition + 50% FAA US Data
Problem Definition + 70% FAA US Data
Problem Definition • The primary response, thus far, has been to increase the prescriptive hourly requirements, required maneuvers, and testing processes necessary for qualification. • There have been structural improvements: • Improvements to Training Tools & Products (Technology) • Advanced Qualification Proficiency (AQP) Training • ITQI Initiatives (Instructor Training & Evidenced Based Training) • Maturing Threat and Error Management (TEM) Programs • We are still challenged to advance our training and evaluation methods in the international aviation community.
Competency-Based Training • One possible solution is competency based training and assessment. Hours & Maneuvers Benchmarked Standards Proficiency in classic training program Proficiency in proficiency-based training program ? Training Progress Training Progress • Competency based training: • Places emphasis on achieving benchmarked standards of performance throughout the training, or • Is training that focuses on what a person will do in the workplace after completing a program of training.
Competency-Based Training • Most modern military training is competency based. • Application to civil flight training is relatively new & limited. • Only achievable if the principles of the Instructional Systems Design process are well understood and successfully applied.
Competency-Based Training • Existing prescriptive training programs confirm that a trainee has obtained the knowledge and mastered the skills associated with a given task by a final test or progress test. • Competency based programs, by design, mandate the continuous assessment of KSA competencies against benchmarked standards using a Learning Management System and other tools to ensure the continuous maturation of trainees as they progress through a given program of instruction. • The question before us… is competency based training realistically achievablein today’s global aviation community?
Competency-Based Training • Is standardization in a non-standardized world possible? • Can we develop competency based training standards that complement and improve our current training initiatives and priorities? • We believe it is feasible if we conform to several features that are the basis of competency based training and assessment.
Competency Based Training Features • A Comprehensive Aircrew Selection Process. • Aviation English Language (AEL) Training • Competency Based Training and Assessment • Underlying instructional systems design process • Competency based training environment • Benchmarked standards of performance, focused on the end goal • Integration of theoretical and practical skills • Supporting training materials • Satisfactory completion of training is only based on the achievement of all specified competencies • Training emphasis on the crew • LOFT/scenario based training predominates • Integrated CRM/TEM
Competency Based Training Features • Practical and Theoretical Training • Competencies precisely defined • Cumulatively provide the theoretical and practical competencies of an ATPL holder qualified to operate a multi-engine, turbine powered, pressurized airplane in all possible operational environments. • Windshear, CFIT, Upset, and recovery from energy critical maneuvers required. • CRM/TEM attitudinal competencies trained in a mission context. • FSTD’s provide the fidelities necessary to train competency based objectives. • Training providers tasked with coordinating specific regulatory requirements with the National Authority.
Competency Based Training Features • Instructional Competencies • Defined for each phase. • Confirmed by the supporting quality system. • Formally assessed. • Program Oversight • Confirmation of the ATO’s training processes. • Confirmation of the ATO’s quality system. • Review of the ATO’s risk indicators previously identified in the risk profile. • Assessment of training fidelity (courseware, instruction, FSTD’s).
Competency Based Training Features • Testing • Comprehensive assessment of developing ATPL knowledge and skills. • PF and PNF/PM. • Evaluation standards connected to existing/future technologies. • Data Collection and Analysis • Absolutely essential to assure competency development. • ICAO data collection recommendations provide a good start. • Data collection should extend through release to the line and the first year of operational experience to validate the training process.
CAE Initiatives • Our Proposed MPL program and existing ATPL training programs incorporate competency based training features. • Examples: • CASS • Standard Proficiency Objectives • Robust quality systems • Providing TO’s with a set of priorities that support day-to-day operations, augment safety initiatives, reveal latent threats to the organization, confirm program execution and instructor proficiency, and provide long term action items. • Comprehensive and fully integrated planning & data collection system • CAE Global Flight Operations Manual
CAE Initiatives • Airline/Customer Coordination • Training expectations/special needs. • Traditional or AQP? • Cadet selection. • Coordination of extended data collection requirements. • Coordination with sponsoring airline’s NAA inspector. • National Authority Coordination • Many ICAO recommended training standards are tasked to NAAs. • They include ATO Certification Requirements, Quality System Requirements, and SMS requirements. End goal is improved training fidelity that fully utilizes advanced training methods & technologies.