A New Paradigm in Assessment: Competency Based Halden A. Morris, PhD., P.E.,Senior Lecturer, TVET School of Education, UWI. Marjorie Blagrove-Williams, MSc , Education ProgrammeCoordinator, VTDI
QUESTIONS What Where How • What is this new paradigm in assessment? • What is Competency Based assessment (CBA)? • What are the assumptions of CBA? • What are the origins of CBA? • What are the components of CBA? • How are standards for CBA established? • What is the CBA methodology? • How are evidences for CBA collected? • What are the fundamental challenges of CBA? • What facilities required for implementing CBA? • Where CBA is best employed?
Connection with your current thinking / practice. LEARNING MEMO - Concepts Determine what? • Assessment of learning. • Assessment for learning. • Realibility of Assessment. • What challenges your thinking? • Identify one useful, new concept or idea . • Is assessment aligned to learning? • Assessment as learning. • Extends your thinking. • Concept of CBA. • What of accountability? • Validity of Assessment.
What is Competency Based Assessment (CBA) An educational system which revolves around what is essential for all students to “be able to do, or be like” at the end of their learning experiences, as a result of their education. Competency based assessment is producing evidence to make a judgment [decision] about whether the person is competent in relation to a particular standard
What is Competency Based Assessment (CBA) • Hayton & Wagner(2008) sees CBA as ‘the assessment of evidence to determine a person’s current abilities against a given set of competency standards’ • Competency-based assessment is a system in which a number of assessment techniques can be used to determine the person’s abilities
Origins of Competency Based Assessment (CBA) • The theoretical roots of CBA lie in the behaviourist’ models of human psychology from the 1950s (Skinner is the main proponent). • The model of competence used most extensively in education was developed by the American defence forces in the 1950s.
Five Related Developments that fed into the Design of CBET Mastery learning (Bloom 1974) Criterion-referenced testing (Popham 1978) Minimum competency testing (Jaegar 1980) Competence in education (Burke et al. 1975) Programmed learning (Skinner 1952).
These movements shared three things in common: design of assessment around a list of observable behaviours Modules the concept of ‘mastery’. (Harris et al. 1995
Philosophy of CBA Assessment is against industry standard, or a set of criteria to establish competency. Criterion referenced A process that matches evidence of competency against a standard. Evidence based Candidates are involved in the process of assessment Participatory
Where is CBA best employed? • CBA can be employed in all practical areas. • Specifically, CBA is best employed where there is a need to assess performance demonstrated against established standards for a particular area.
Emphasis of Competency Based Assessment
Equipping students Performance Valid Industry industry Making inferences about competency on the basis of performance (McGaw, 1993 Continuous development of outcomes that match current industry needs in the workplace. Emphasis is on determining if students are equipped to meet the demands of the workplace. Valid, reliable, fair and flexible assessment process
Misconceptions of CBA CBA is the same as Performance Based Assessment (PBA) Performance in soft skills is not critical in CBA Employers could conduct valid and reliable assessment without assessment of competencies Training records are assessments CBA can be a single event
Assumptions CBA places the emphasis on developing detailed national criteria that are based on industry needs CBA quality assurance emphasizes auditing human and material resources in ways that lead to continuous internal quality improvement. Attempts to develop descriptions of practice involve practitioners and this involvement is active and collective.
COMPONENTS OF CBA A standard of competence or benchmark of performance Standards Established methods for the collection of evidence of competence Evidence collection Framework for the comparison of evidence against standards to establish performance level Framework for comparison Assurance of quality of process Quality assurance
COMPONENTS OF CBA Emphasis is on outcomes; specifically, multiple outcomes, each distinctive and separately considered Outcomes The belief that these outcomes can and should be specified to the point where they are clear and "transparent". Assessor, assessee, and "third parties" should be able to understand what is being assessed and what should be achieved.
How do you know when a student achieves competency. Establishing Standards for CBA
Establishing Standards Evidence must comply with the assessment guidelines and other requirement stated in the relevant nationally training package Underpinning knowledge, skills and attitudes. (Competency is achieved when a student can demonstrate these) The evaluation of sufficient evidence to enable judgments to be made regarding competence.
Judgment based on: Standard Performance Evidence • Industry acceptance • Teachers’ compliance with the standards. • Conditions of performance/ • facilities/ • experience of teacher/ assessor • Variety • Flexibility • Observable
What does it mean to be Competent Perform Organize React Fulfill Transfer • Perform • at an • acceptable Skill Level Respond and React to the unexpected Organize one’s tasks Fulfillthe Role expected in the Workplace Transfer Skills and Knowledge to new Situations
CBA Methodology How do I do it? Who should be involved? When Should it be done? Where should it be done?
CBA Methodology 1 3 2 4 Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) On the job assessment Off the job assessment Simulation
CBA Methodology: On the job/ Workplace assessment The assessor assesses the practical component at the workplace and the underpinning knowledge and skills component off-the-job.
Off the job assessment Actively involves the workplace in the assessment process Assessment is conducted off-the-job after which verification of on-the-job workplace performance is sought from the workplace supervisor.
Simulation Makes assessment activity meaningful to students by relating it workplace activities, procedures and requirements. Provision of a fully simulated assessment in an off-the-job setting that effectively mirrors the workplace requirements.
Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) Assessment through Recognition of Prior Learning offered where the apprentice/trainee presents evidence of appropriate knowledge and skills development.
CBA Methodology - Instruments • Observation • Demonstration • Project • Role play • Oral presentation • Portfolio • Written questions • Case studies
Fundamental Challenges of CBA
Fundamental Challenges of CBA • Deciding on approaches to assessment for CBA • Gaining teacher confidence in using CBA • No shared understanding about CBA • Concept of competency is not well defined
Fundamental Challenges of CBA • Details required CBA for TVET is too cumbersome. • Difficulty in designing assessment instruments that measure the criteria for not one but a number of competencies. • Accessing suitable training for assessors.
Fundamental Challenges of CBA Difficult and impracticable to decide a level of achievement as well as decide competencies. Flexibility that schools can apply to developing approaches to assessment.
Fundamental Challenges of CBA The sequence of learning and assessment, can minimize, rather than maximize, the amount of assessment required. Inability to provide a variety of support materials, including print, audiovisual and simulations (models), keyed to the skills being mastered is used.
Fundamental Challenges of CBA • Providing appropriate (fit for purpose) facilities & equipment for carrying out CBA. • Providing facilities that is aligned with requirements of industry and commerce.
Summary • What is Competency Based Assessment (CBA)? • Origins of CBA • Philosophy of CBA • Where is CBA best employed • Emphasis of CBA • Misconceptions of CBA • Assumptions of CBA • Components of CBA • Establishing Standards for CBA • CBA Methodology & Instruments • Fundamental Challenges of CBA
References Information retrieved from the following cites: • http://www-new1.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/Documents/resources/heca/heca_cl25.pdf • http://training.qld.gov.au/resources/employers/pdf/requirements-competency-assessment.pdf • https://www.cshisc.com.au/docs/ATSI_TAA/LearnerGuides/atsi_workplaceassessor_learnersguide_sec2_dev01.pdf