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Recent Results on Tore Supra with the ITER PAM Lower Hybrid Prototype Antenna. G.T. Hoang, A. Ekedahl with the contribution of the CIMES Project Team. CIMES Project granted with Euratom preferential support 2000 a new LHCD CW capability a new IR monitoring capability

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Recent Results on Tore Supra

with the ITER PAM

Lower Hybrid Prototype Antenna

G.T. Hoang, A. Ekedahl

with the contribution of the CIMES Project Team

a brief history of cimes
CIMES Project granted with Euratom preferential support 2000

a new LHCD CW capability

a new IR monitoring capability

a CW pellet injector

a new cooling capability

« A brief history of CIMES »
  • 2009
  • 2003
  • 2003
  • 2002
tore supra pfc monitoring by ir

LH launcher


Tore Supra PFC monitoring by IR
  • All the PFCs are actively cooled by pressurized water (120°C; 1100 tons/hour)
  • Temperature monitoring by actively cooled IR endoscopes [Guilhem 2005]

ICRF antenna

TPL (7.5m2)

574 elements

Toroidal Pumped Limiter with heat exhaust capability of 10MW.m-2

[Garin, Fus Eng Design 2005 ]

Implementation of IR cameras at JET

[Gauthier, CEA-IRFM]

tore supra cw pellet injector


Tore Supra CW Pellet Injector
  • Relevant for ITER:
  • Reliable screw extruder
  • Pneumatic acceleration does not require large pumping system (<15 mbar.l for 2mm pellets up to 800 m/s)

Same injector implemented at JET [A. Geraud]

2-minute Pellet Fueled LHCD Plasma

(155 pellets. Very stable speed of 0.5 km/s)

the new tore supra lhcd system
a new LHCD CW capability

a new ITER-relevant PAM (Passive-Active Multijunction) launcher, complementing the FAM (Full Active Multijunction and replacing the 20 year old grill

a complete renewal of the power transmitter, including 16 new klystrons TH2103C (Thalès Electron Devices)

The New Tore Supra LHCD system
3 7ghz cw klystron th2103c

700 kW / 1000s

3.7GHz / CW Klystron TH2103C
  • Routinely, 620kW/CW @ VSWR =1.4, and 720kW/CW @ VSWR=1
  • Efficiency of 47%
  • 16+2 klystrons ordered, today 14 delivered and commissioned separately

F. Kazarian et al., FED (2009);

L. Delpech et al., 18th RF Top Conf. (2009)

end january 2010: Tore Supra restarts operation after Xmas shutdown

FAM: not installed

PAM: fed with 8 “old” klystrons (Ptransmittermax~2.8MW)

end march 2010: short Tore Supra shutdown

FAM: reinstalled and connected to the first series of 8 “new” klystrons (Ptransmittermax~ 5.5MW > PFAMmax)

PAM no change (Ptransmittermax~ 2.8MW < PPAMmax)

end 2010: LHCD transmitter shutdown

FAM no change (Ptransmittermax~5.5MW > PFAMmax)

PAM connected to second series of 8 “new” klystrons (Ptransmittermax~5.5MW > PPAMmax)

Near term activities on transmitter


Operational domain of long pulse operation extended

  • Physics issues zero loop voltage physics at high density/high plasma current, incl. transport, MHD-fast particles, intrinsic rotation.
  • Long discharge mastering (physics & device protection control)

Motivations for a new LHCD Launcher

  • A key element of the CIMES project
    • More SS LHCD power at 3.7GHz
    • Improved domain of long pulse operation for Tore Supra: higher density and plasma current
    • Physics of SS plasmas and technology test of PAM concept
  • The PAM is the present prefered solution for ITER LHCD (coupling issues, protection of the power source (low reflected power))

The PAM is presently the heaviest object on a Tore Supra port (~8 tons)

manufacturing tore supra pam launcher

Concept. Ph. Bibet

Manufacturing Tore Supra PAM launcher
  • ITER-relevant concept for LHCD system
  • The Tore Supra PAM scales as ¼ of the ITER launcher size

D. Guilhem et al., 18th RF Top Conf. (2009)

Mode Converters

(rear view)

Passive Active Multijunction

(front view)

3 days conditioning

10 days with plasma; 260 shots

28/10/09: starting the transmitter and PAM commissioning (60kW per klystron/10ms, no plasma)

30/10/09: first plasma discharges

P = 450kW / 4.5s

N// OK

Very low reflection coefficient (~1.5%) at long distance (>6cm)

17/11/09: 600kW / 5.5s + tests SMBI

01/12/09: 1MW / 5s

02/12/09: 1.9 MW/ 10s + variations in n//

16/12/09: 2.7MW / 17s

An extremely fast commissioning period

Participants from:


ENEA (7), POLITO Italy (1)

IST (1)

UKAEA (“CCFE”) (3)

IPP Prague (2)

ASIPP (3) & SWIP China (2)

IPR India (1)

NFRI Korea (3)

A clear interest from the LHCD community

pam launcher commissioned on tore supra
PAM Launcher Commissioned on Tore Supra
  • Major results after few days of commissioning
  • ~ 2.7 MW coupled for 17 seconds (~ 24 MW/m2)

Recent 2010 progress [1/3]

2.7MW / 35s

10 cm

2.7 MW (~ 24 MW/m2) coupled for 35 secondsafter ~ 280 shots

IR surveillance




Recent 2010 progress [2/3]

2.75 MW ( 25 MW/m2) coupled for ~80 seconds



IR surveillance

T [°C]





Recent 2010 progress [3/3]

Full CD regime (PAM alone) during 50 s/2.2MW

  • CD efficiency similar to standard full active antenna, weak sensitivity with edge density.

Hard-X Profile versus N//

  • In presence of electric field; loop voltage drop ~ 40%

TS #44159-44174, 0.5 MW-2MW, Ip ~ 0.95MA, line density ~ 3.7x1019m-2


Low reflected power level

  • even at a large plasma-antenna gap(follows design specifications)
  • in good agreement with modeling

Low power (~200kW) to avoid non-linear effects on coupling

non linear effect on coupling observed
Non-Linear Effect on Coupling Observed

Reflection coefficient

  • increases with power at small L// (low ne, Te at grill)  reduction of density at grill
  • stays constant at large L// (high ne, Te at grill)

Small L//

(PAM behind the IC antenna limiters)


Large L//

(PAM in front of the IC antenna limiters)

Power waveform

power coupling maintained under elm like conditions
Power Coupling Maintained under ELM-like Conditions

Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) is used to mimic ELMs

hard x rays during smbi
Hard-X rays during SMBI
  • HXR takes finite time to respond, scales typically as slowing down time.
  • HXR emission seems to follow bulk density recovery profile (slow response).



P. Sharma et al.


Conclusions 1

  • The LHCD components of the CIMES project are now up & running
  • TH2103C 700kW/CW klystrons commercially available
  • PAM launcher showing initial excellent agreement with expectations
    • Coupling at long distance and in ELMy-like plasmas demonstrated
    • Easy commissioning
    • CD capability assessement planned early 2010
    • Full CD over 50s
    • Long pulse capability underway
    • 2.75MW/80s achieved
    • CW Power density limit still to be assessed (2011)
    • So far 25MW/m2limited by the capacity of old klystrons
    • > 30MW/m2 expected
  • You are welcome to join the Tore Supra experiments


on the Conceptual Design Studies

of the ITER LHCD system

Tuong Hoang

for the contributors of the LH4IT Project Team

J.F. Artaud1, Y.S. Bae2, J. Belo3, G. Berger-By1, J.M. Bernard1, Ph. Cara1, A. Cardinali4, C. Castaldo4, S. Ceccuzzi4, R. Cesario4, J. Decker1, L. Delpech1, A. Ekedahl1, J.Garcia1, P. Garibaldi1, M. Goniche1, D. Guilhem1, C.Hamlyn-Harris5, J. Hillairet1, G.T. Hoang1, J. Hua6, Q.Y. Huang6, F. Imbeaux1, F. Kazarian5, S.H. Kim1, Y. Lausenaz1, R. Maggiora7, R. Magne1, L. Marfisi1, S. Meschino8, D. Milanesio7, F. Mirizzi4, W. Namkung9, L. Pajewski8, L. Panaccione8, Y. Peysson1, A. Saille1, G. Schettini8, M. Schneider1, P.K. Sharma1,10, O. Tudisco4, G. Vecchi8, S. R. Villari4, K. Vulliez1, Y. Wu6, Q. Zeng6


One year ago…

  • Following Design Review conclusions, a 20 MW LHCD system for ITER under consideration for Steady-State Advanced Tokamak research and V.s saving issues.
  • Five ITER partners joining efforts to update the conceptual design: CN, EU (under EFDA), IN, KO, and US, on voluntary basis.


Providing a pre-design document including the conceptual design, costing, possible procurement allocation, WBS, R&D needs

  • CEA (coordinator), ENEA, IST, POLITO, Univ. ROME 3, (CCFE, IPP-Prague, follow-up only)
  • With IO (HCD Department)
  • With International Fusion community support; China, India, Korea (test of 5GHz tube), US and Japan (follow-up only)
all the works planned in 2009 achieved
All the works planned in 2009 achieved
  • Provide the ITER System Requirement Document, and Work Breakdown Structure
  • Study the Integration on ITER with IO, RAMI constraint (reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability)
  • Revise the Physics Design (absorption, propagation, alpha issue,…), incl. contribution to scenario development
  • Improve the initial DDD2001 conceptual design

(antenna, TLs, PS, system control&protection + assoc. diagnostics)

  • Evaluate the cost andtentative planning
role of lhcd in iter confirmed
Role of LHCD in ITER Confirmed
  • Driving the far off-axis current, crucial for sustaining Steady-State
  • SavingVolt-seconds -> extend burn duration
previous results on deposition confirmed



14MW absorbed

Propagating region for N//= 2

~26MW absorbed

Previous Results on Deposition Confirmed
  • Location of LH driven current @ r/a > 0.6
  • Best range of N//: 1.8 – 2.2, for all the scenarios, incl. the ramp-up phase
  • Expected pedestal parameters [ne = 0.6x 1020 m-3 and Te < 5 keV] are located well inside the propagating region for N//= 2
lhcd extends burn duration





LHCD Extends Burn Duration

Early application of LHCD (20MW) in the current ramp-up saves ~ 45Wb (mainly by heating, ~38 Wb), preserved to the end of burn

  • Decrease of li: li ≤ 0.3
  • All PF coil currents well within their limits

a,b,c,d: depending on the power + waveforms

modification of ddd2001 pam proposed


@ 41018m-3


@ 41018m-3

noc=3.1x1017 m-3

noc=3.1x1017 m-3

Modification of DDD2001 PAM proposed
  • 4-WG module (4A+4P WGs/MJ) to improve the flexibility:

N// = 2 ± 0.2 (initial design: 8-WG module, N// = 2 ± 0.1)

  • Directivity very similar to DDD2001 design (70%)
  • Optimizing bi-junctions to reduce RC <1.5%, in a wide range of density up to 12 x nco

4A+4P WGs/MJ


installation on iter
Installation on ITER

2 x 48 RF windows (500kW/CW)

48 rectangular T-Lines maximum

(or 24 circular T-Lines)

48 Klystrons 500kW / CW

Foreseen distance between the klystrons and the launcher, could be reduced at about 40m

Port # 11

antenna front face


Case B

Case A

Antenna Front Face
  • Different models have been analyzed:
    • DDD2001 PAM model
    • 2 Alternative PAM models “Case A” and “Case B”

(also alternative concept FAM)

  • Acceptable Surface Temperature(<650°C)for all designs
  • Better knowledge of the Be-Cu joint (HIP) needed

-> mock-up required

cw high power tests of the 500kw 5ghz klystron restarted
CW high-power tests of the 500kW /5GHz klystron restarted

In Feb 2010 at NFRI, with new capability of the test stand. Participation of CEA.

460 kW/20s; ~300kW / CW @ VSWR=1.12



[Courtesy ofY.S. Bae]

an iter task agreement under preparation
This task is focussed on the design activity and will be divided in the following subtasks:

Definition of a development work plan.

Physics modeling to ensure physics requirement for LH H&CD.

Conceptual design analysis.

Definition of the R&D associated with the previous work plan.

Design process and drawings

The task will cover ~4 ppys over 2009/10.

The task issuing has been delayed due to the sudden death of A. Tanga.

An ITER Task Agreement under preparation

Conclusions 2

  • The ITER LHCD Conceptual Design Activity is complete. Final Report to Contributors and IO has been delivered in April 2010
  • Physics Case, incl. contribution to Steady State Scenario Developments
  • Conceptual Design for PS, transmitter, TL and launcher available
  • Urgent R&D: 500kW CW windows, mode filters, front face (BeO)
  • Port and Transmitter Hall pre-allocation on ITER
  • EFDA will continue the Design effort over 2010 and encourage Procurement Package Discussions amongst contributors
  • ITER Task Agreement under preparation
  • focusing on the design activity (Voluntary Contribution to the ITER LHCD development plan’). The task will cover ~ 4 ppys over 2009/10
  • New LHCD systems are foreseen in EAST, HL-2M, KSTAR, SST1, AUG and FAST (?). Need consortium (?)