The Telescope by Pavitthra Pandurangan
What is the telescope? An object used to make distant objects appear closer using a series of curved mirrors or lenses.
A Basic Overview • 2,000 years ago - evidence of lenses. • 1608 - Hans Lippershey invents the first refracting telescope. • 1609 - Galileo invents an improved model. • 1670 - Isaac Newton invents the modern reflecting telescope.
Hans Lippershey • 1470: Born in Wesel, in western Germany • A German - Dutch lens-maker • 1508: Filed for patent for his telescope, but was denied. • Magnification was three times. • Compensated by Dutch government for providing binocular telescopes.
Galileo Galilei • February 15, 1564: Born in Pisa, Italy. • Italian physicist and astronomer. • 1592: Taught mathematics at University of Padua. • Studied Ptolemy. • Convince that Nicolaus Copernicus' theory (planets revolve around the sun) is correct. • 1609: Heard about the telescope. Learned more about it, and created an improved model by himself. • Thought of pointing this invention to the skies, rather than using it in war. • “The Father of Modern Astronomy”
Galileo’s Findings • What he saw: • Mountains and craters on the moon. • Moons of Jupiter (four largest). • Milky Way is a collection of stars. • Dark spots on the surface of the Sun. • Published discoveries in March 1610 in The Starry Messenger.
Galileo’s Telescope • Known as the refracting telescope. • Magnification of twenty times. • Parts: • Objective Lens – collects light from a distant object and focuses it into one point. • Small Lens – the eyepiece, brings image to your eye. • This version is not used in modern day astronomy because the lenses are too expensive to reproduce.
Galileo’s Telescope • Convex lens collects and bends light to a focus point. • A concave lens magnifies the image.
Isaac Newton • January 4, 1643: Born in Woolsthorpe. • 1661: Attended Cambridge University. • Read about optics and light. • Investigated the refraction of light. • 1688: Developed the reflecting telescope
Newtonian Reflector • Idea was from Scottish mathematician James Gregory, who came up with the design in 1663. • Used two mirrors instead of glass lenses. • Primary Mirror: Curved, metal mirror • Secondary Mirror: Small, flat mirror • Less chromatic aberration (fringes of color against the boundaries between light and dark) since wavelengths focus at one point. • Helpful for viewing dark objects.
Newtonian Reflector • A large, concave mirror collects and reflects the incoming light. • Then a flat mirror focuses the light and reflects it to the eye piece. • The eye piece then magnifies the image.
Impact • Scientists accepted that the Earth was not the center of the galaxy. • The Sun and Moon aren’t perfect cellestial objects. • Examine stars, planets, galaxies, space, etc. • Look at our universe in different wavelengths (gamma, infrared, radio). • See beyond what we can now, and understand the universe. • Creation of famous telescopes like the Keck Telescope, the Kitt Peak Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope.
Sources • "Galilei, Galileo." World Book's Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists. Vol. 3. Illinois: World Book, 2006. 117-19. Print. • ^“Rigden, John S.” Macmillan Encyclopedia of Physics. Vol. 2. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1996. 647-49. Print. • Strano, Giorgio. "Galileo’S Telescope: History, Scientific Analysis, And Replicated Observations." Experimental Astronomy25.1-3 (2009): 17-31. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. • "Galileo." (n.d.): Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. • Shubinski, Raymond. "How The Telescope Remade The Universe. (Cover Story)." Astronomy 37.5 (2009): 30.MasterFILE Premier. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. • http://www.biography.com/people/galileo-9305220 • http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/refracting.html • http://www.history-of-the-microscope.org/hans-lippershey-invented-the-telescope.php • http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/science/astronomy/instruments/lippershey.htm • http://www.egglescliffe.org.uk/physics/astronomy/telescope/newtontele.html • http://www.newton.ac.uk/newtlife.html • https://www.google.com/#hl=en&sugexp=les%3Bcrnk_timediscountc&gs_nf=3&gs_rn=0&gs_ri=hp&tok=0VxsiR2Qa5ogwAkdHbtiuw&cp=12&gs_id=1k&xhr=t&q=telescope+definition&pf=p&tbo=d&output=search&sclient=psy-ab&oq=telescope+de&gs_l=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_cp.r_qf.&fp=590195a7cf0fc162&bpcl=39580677&biw=1280&bih=933