Kaveh aminzadeh school of population health university of auckland
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Kaveh Aminzadeh School of Population Health University of Auckland. adolescent wellbeing & Neighbourhoods. Adolescent Wellbeing. Concerns Positive Youth Development “Problem-free is not fully prepared …” Pittman, 1991)

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Kaveh aminzadeh school of population health university of auckland

KavehAminzadeh

School of Population Health

University of Auckland

adolescent wellbeing &Neighbourhoods


Adolescent wellbeing
Adolescent Wellbeing

  • Concerns

  • Positive Youth Development

    • “Problem-free is not fully prepared …” Pittman, 1991)

    • Development takes place through the processes of reciprocal interactions between individual and environment (Bronfenbrennar, 1981)


Neighbourhoods
Neighbourhoods

  • Importance for Adolescents

  • Neighbourhood & Wellbeing

    • Neighbourhood characteristics as Stressors/Resources influencing health directly/indirectly

    • Social Capital Theory (Putnam, 1995)

  • Limited Previous Studies

    • Adult-centred/inappropriate methods

      (Morgan 2009 & Borges 2010)


Why multilevel analysis
Why Multilevel Analysis?

(Manski, 1995)

Individual Characteristics

Environment


Methodology
Methodology

  • Youth 07 dataset

    • Nationally representative random sample

    • 9107 students (years 9-13), 96 schools [Response rate: 84% of schools & 74% of students]

    • Geo-coding procedure


Defining neighbourhood
Defining Neighbourhood

  • Census Area Unit

9107students ,1188 Neighbourhoods

5567 Students,

262 Neighbourhoods


Individual level measures
Individual level measures

  • Demographic variables

    • Gender, Age, Ethnicity & Socioeconomic Status

  • Emotional Wellbeing (Diener 2009)

    • WHO-5 Wellbeing Index

      • Cheerful/Good spirits; Calm/Relaxed; Active/Vigorous; Fresh/Rested; Interested in life

    • General Mood

    • Life Satisfaction


Neighbourhood level measures
Neighbourhood level measures

  • Social Cohesion (e.g. Do the people in your neighbourhood help each other? Are they friendly?)

  • Membership in Community Organisations (e.g. Do you belong to a volunteer group who help with disabilities?)

  • Residential Stability (In the past year how many times have you moved home?)

  • Neighbourhood Facilities(e.g. park, sports field)

  • Neighbourhood Physical Disorders(e.g. Graffiti, rubbish)


Analysis
Analysis

  • Bivariate Analysis

  • Multilevel Analysis

    • Cross classified random intercept multilevel model

    • Examining cross-level Interaction between individual SES and the main effects


Results bivariate association
Results – Bivariate Association

P = 0.0044

n = 262

P < 0.0001

Psychological Wellbeing



Adolescent wellbeing neighbourhoods

P = 0.06

Psychological Wellbeing

High membership

Medium membership

Low membership

Socio-economic Deprivation


Summary of findings
Summary of Findings

  • Significant positive association between adolescent wellbeing and neighbourhood social cohesion & youth membership.

  • No association between adolescent wellbeing and neighbourhood facilities, neighbourhood physical disorders & residential stability.

  • Buffering effect of neighbourhood youth membership for students in high SED.


Discussion
Discussion

  • Strengths

    • Nationally representative data; Multilevel analysis; Validated measures of positive outcome;

  • Limitations

    • Cross-sectional design; Only including adolescents at school; Limited in defining neighbourhood


Future research
Future Research

  • Including data from both adolescents and adults

  • How to increase social cohesion

  • How to increase youth participation in community affairs


Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment

  • Students, staff and schools participating with the Youth’07 survey

  • Youth’07 was funded by

    • Health Research Council, Department of Labour, Families Commission, ACC, SPARC, ALAC, and Ministries of Youth Development, Justice and Health