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A Future with Promise: Latino Adolescent Reproductive Health A Future with Promise: A Chartbook on Latino Adolescent Reproductive Health Anne Driscoll, DrPH Claire Brindis, DrPh M. Antonia Biggs, PhD L. Teresa Valderrama, MPH Center for Reproductive Health Research and Policy,

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a future with promise a chartbook on latino adolescent reproductive health
A Future with Promise:A Chartbook on Latino Adolescent Reproductive Health

Anne Driscoll, DrPH

Claire Brindis, DrPh

M. Antonia Biggs, PhD

L. Teresa Valderrama, MPH

Center for Reproductive Health Research and Policy,

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences,

and the Institute for Health Policy Studies

University of California, San Francisco

http://crhrp.ucsf.edu

chapter 1

Chapter 1:

Population

figure 1 1 projected us population by race ethnicity 2000 20255
Figure 1.1: Projected US Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2000-2025

In 2000, the US population was:

  • 12.5% Latino
  • 12.2% African American
  • 71.4% white

By 2025, the US population is projected to be:

  • 18.2% Latino
  • 12.9% African American
  • 62.0% white

Source: US Census, 2000

figure 1 2 age distribution by race ethnicity 20007
Figure 1.2: Age Distribution by Race/ Ethnicity, 2000

The Latino population in the US is young:

  • 39% of Latinos are under the age of 20, whereas 34% of African Americans and 26% of whites are
  • 6% of Latinos, 8% of African Americans and 15% of whites are over age 64

Source: US Census, 2000

figure 1 3 projected us youth population ages 10 19 by race ethnicity 2000 2025
Figure 1.3: Projected US Youth Population (ages 10-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 2000-2025

Source: US Census, 2000

figure 1 3 projected us youth population ages 10 19 by race ethnicity 2000 20259
Figure 1.3: Projected US Youth Population (ages 10-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 2000-2025
  • In 2000, 14% of the US youth population was Latino – this will grow to 24% by 2025
  • The African American youth population will stay relatively constant between 2000 & 2025 (15% to 14%)
  • The percentage of the youth population that is white will decrease from 66% to 54% during this same period

Source: US Census 2001

figure 1 4 latino population by national origin 200011
Figure 1.4: Latino Population by National Origin, 2000
  • A majority (66%) of US Latinos are of Mexican descent
  • 15% are of Central/South American descent
  • 9% are of Puerto Rican descent
  • 4% are of Cuban descent

Source: Therrien & Ramirez, 2001

figure 1 5 percent increase in latino population by state 1990 2000
Figure 1.5: Percent Increase in Latino Population by State, 1990-2000

From 1990 to 2000:

  • North Carolina experienced the greatest percentage increase by state (394%)
  • 337% in Arkansas
  • 300% in Georgia
  • 278% in Tennessee

Source: Guzman, 2001

8B

figures 1 6 and 1 7 latino population by state 1990 2000
Figures 1.6 and 1.7: Latino Population by State, 1990-2000
  • In 1990, 31 states had 100,000 Latinos or less; in 2000, 30 states did
  • The number of states with between 250,000 and 500,000 Latinos rose from 2 to 10 states
  • The number of states with over 1 million Latinos rose from 5 to 7 states

Source: Guzman, 2001

figure 1 8 latina teen birth rates ages 15 19 by state 2000
Figure 1.8: Latina Teen Birth Rates (ages 15-19) by State, 2000

In 2000:

  • The US Latina teen birth rate was 89 per 1,000 teens
  • North Carolina had the highest rate (150/1,000)
  • West Virginia had the lowest rate (9/1,000)

Sources: Papillo et al., 2002; US Census Bureau, 2000

8B

figure 1 9 percentage of youth ages 0 18 in two parent families by race ethnicity 1980 2002
Figure 1.9: Percentage of Youth (ages 0-18) in Two-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-2002

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

*Data not available for all years

figure 1 9 percentage of youth ages 0 18 in two parent families by race ethnicity 1980 200220
Figure 1.9: Percentage of Youth (ages 0-18) in Two-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-2002

The proportion of youth living with both parents decreased across groups:

  • From 75% to 65% among Latinos
  • From 42% to 38% among African Americans
  • From 81% to 77% among whites (1990-2002)*

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

*Data not available for all years

figure 1 10 percentage of youth ages 0 18 in poverty by race ethnicity 1980 2001
Figure 1.10: Percentage of Youth (ages 0-18) in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-2001

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

*Data not available for all years

figure 1 10 percentage of youth ages 0 18 in poverty by race ethnicity 1980 200122
Figure 1.10: Percentage of Youth (ages 0-18) in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-2001

Youth of color are more likely to be poor than whites. Yet, the proportion of youth living in poverty decreased across groups:

  • From 33% to 27% among Latinos
  • From 42% to 30% among African Americans
  • From 12% to 9% among whites (1990-2001)*

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

*Data not available for all years

slide23
Figure 1.12: Percentage of Babies Born at Low Birthweight by Race/Ethnicity and National Origin of Mother, 2001
slide24
Figure 1.12: Percentage of Babies Born at Low Birthweight by Race/Ethnicity and National Origin of Mother, 2001
  • The proportion of low birthweight babies is lower among Latinos (6%) than among whites (7%) or African Americans (13%)
  • Puerto Rican mothers are more likely to have low birthweight babies (9%) than Central and South American, Cuban or Mexican mothers (6% for all groups)

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 1 13 infant mortality rates by race ethnicity 1983 200026
Figure 1.13: Infant Mortality Rates* by Race/Ethnicity, 1983-2000

African Americans have the highest infant mortality rates, yet rates have decreased across all groups from:

  • 9.5 to 5.6 among Latinos
  • 9.2 to 5.7 among whites
  • 19.1 to 13.6 among African Americans

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

*Number of deaths per 1,000 live births

figure 1 14 adolescent ages 15 19 death rates by race ethnicity and sex 200028
Figure 1.14: Adolescent (ages 15-19) Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, 2000

Among adolescents, males and African Americans are at the greatest risk of dying. In 2000, there were:

  • 90 male and 29 female deaths per 1,000 Latino teens
  • 130 male and 44 female deaths per 1,000 African American teens
  • 86 male and 41 female deaths per 1,000 white teens

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 1 15 causes of death among adolescent ages 15 19 males by race ethnicity 2000
Figure 1.15: Causes of Death among Adolescent (ages 15-19) Males by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
  • Latino males are most likely to die from motor vehicle accidents (MVA, 29%), followed by firearms (28%), other injury (19%) and non-injury (15%)
  • African American males are most likely to die from firearms (62%), followed by non-injury (27%), MVA (22%) and other injury (19%)
  • White males are most likely to die from MVA (21%), followed by other injury (20%), non-injury (17%), and firearms (12%)

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 1 16 causes of death among adolescent ages 15 19 females by race ethnicity 200032
Figure 1.16: Causes of Death among Adolescent (ages 15-19) Females by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
  • Latina females are most likely to die from motor vehicle accidents (MVA, 11%), followed by non-injury (10%), other injury (5%), and firearms (3%)
  • African American females are most likely to die from non-injury (21%), followed by MVA (10%), other injury (7%) and firearms (6%)
  • White females are most likely to die from MVA (21%), followed by non-injury (12%), other injury (6%), and firearms (2%)

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

chapter 2

Chapter 2:

Immigration

figure 2 1 latino population by generation 1999
Figure 2.1: Latino Population by Generation, 1999

Source: Jamieson, Curry and Martinez, 2001

figure 2 1 latino population by generation 199935
Figure 2.1: Latino Population by Generation, 1999

For all Latinos:

  • 39% are immigrants
  • 28% are US-born offspring of an immigrant parent
  • 32% are US-born children of US-born parents

For Latino students:

  • 18% are immigrants
  • 48% are US-born offspring of an immigrant parent
  • 34% are US-born children of US-born parents

Source: Jamieson, Curry and Martinez, 2001

figure 2 2 latino population by national origin 200037
Figure 2.2: Latino Population by National Origin, 2000

Most Latinos living in the US are of Mexican origin:

  • 66% are Mexican
  • 15% are Central and South American
  • 9% are Puerto Rican
  • 6% are Other
  • 4% are Cuban

Source: Therrien & Ramirez, 2001

figure 2 3 mean family income of latino students grades 7 12 by generation 1988
Figure 2.3: Mean Family Income of Latino Students (grades 7-12) by Generation, 1988

Source: Kao,1999

figure 2 3 mean family income of latino students grades 7 12 by generation 198839
Figure 2.3: Mean Family Income of Latino Students (grades 7-12) by Generation, 1988

The household income of Latino students increases slightly with each generation, never approaching that of white students:

  • $22 thousand among 1st generation Latinos
  • $28 thousand among 2nd generation Latinos
  • $29 thousand among 3rd generation Latinos
  • $46 thousand among 3rd generation whites

Source: Kao,1999

figure 2 4 poverty rates of latino students grades 7 12 by generation and region of origin 1988
Figure 2.4: Poverty Rates of Latino Students (grades 7-12) by Generation and Region of Origin, 1988

Source: Kao,1999

figure 2 4 poverty rates of latino students grades 7 12 by generation and region of origin 198841
Figure 2.4: Poverty Rates of Latino Students (grades 7-12) by Generation and Region of Origin, 1988

Mexican-origin students are most likely to be poor. When 1st and 2nd generation students are compared to 3rd generation students:

  • 42% vs. 34% of Mexicans are poor
  • 27% vs. 24% of Central Americans are poor
  • 24% vs. 28% of Caribbeans are poor
  • 14% vs. 15% of South Americans are poor

Source: Kao,1999

figure 2 5 changes in language among youth ages 5 17 by generation 1990
Figure 2.5: Changes in Language among Youth (ages 5-17) by Generation, 1990

Source: Hernandez and Charney, 1998

figure 2 5 changes in language among youth ages 5 17 by generation 199043
Figure 2.5: Changes in Language among Youth (ages 5-17) by Generation, 1990

When youth who live in a linguistically isolated household are compared to youth who speak English very well:

  • 44% vs. 55% are 1st generation
  • 31% vs. 29% are 2nd generation
  • 9% vs. 0% are 3rd generation

Source: Hernandez and Charney, 1998

figure 2 6 percentage of 16 24 year olds in school high school graduates 2000
Figure 2.6: Percentage of 16-24 Year Olds in School/High School Graduates, 2000

Source: Kaufman, Alt & Chapman, 2001

figure 2 6 percentage of 16 24 year olds in school high school graduates 200045
Figure 2.6: Percentage of 16-24 Year Olds in School/High School Graduates, 2000

Latinos of all generations are less likely to be high school graduates:

  • 56% of 1st generation Latinos
  • 85% of 2nd generation Latinos
  • 84% of 3rd generation Latinos
  • 87% of African Americans
  • 93% of whites

Source: Kaufman, Alt & Chapman, 2001

figure 2 7 percentage of 8 th graders who dropped out of high school 1994
Figure 2.7: Percentage of 8th Graders Who Dropped Out of High School, 1994

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

figure 2 7 percentage of 8 th graders who dropped out of high school 199447
Figure 2.7: Percentage of 8th Graders Who Dropped Out of High School, 1994
  • The proportion of Latino students who ever drop out of high school is stable across generations at 28%
  • 14% of 1st, 12% of 2nd, and 9% of 3rd generation Latinos from the class of 1992 did not graduate by 1994

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

figure 2 8 school characteristics by latino generational status 1988
Figure 2.8: School Characteristics by Latino Generational Status, 1988

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

figure 2 8a school characteristics by latino generational status 1988
Figure 2.8a: School Characteristics by Latino Generational Status, 1988

Among 1st generation Latinos:

  • 53% are in urban schools
  • 78% are in schools with >50% ethnic minorities
  • 62% are in schools with >40% poor

Among 2nd generation Latinos:

  • 45% are in urban schools
  • 73% are in schools with >50% ethnic minorities
  • 53% are in schools with >40% poor

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

figure 2 8b school characteristics by latino generational status 1988
Figure 2.8b: School Characteristics by Latino Generational Status, 1988

Among 3rd generation Latinos:

  • 36% are in urban schools
  • 54% are in schools with mostly ethnic minorities
  • 37% are in schools where >40% of students are poor

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

figure 2 9 percentage of latino 8 th graders proficient in school subjects by generation 1988
Figure 2.9: Percentage of Latino 8th Graders Proficient in School Subjects by Generation, 1988

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

figure 2 9 percentage of latino 8 th graders proficient in school subjects by generation 198852
Figure 2.9: Percentage of Latino 8th Graders Proficient in School Subjects by Generation, 1988
  • For 1st generation students, 77% are proficient in reading, 80% in math, and 51% in science
  • For 2nd generation students, 84% are proficient in reading, 77% in math, and 60% in science
  • For 3rd generation students, 82% are proficient in reading, 74% in math, and 65% in science

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

figure 2 10 percentage of latino 8 th graders and parents with high educational expectations 1988
Figure 2.10: Percentage of Latino 8th Graders and Parents with High Educational Expectations, 1988

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

figure 2 10 percentage of latino 8 th graders and parents with high educational expectations 198854
Figure 2.10: Percentage of Latino 8th Graders and Parents with High Educational Expectations, 1988
  • 70% of 1st generation students (41% of their parents) expect to get at least a 4 year degree or higher
  • 61% of 2nd generation students (48% of their parents) expect a degree
  • 63% of 3rd generation students (50% of their parents) expect a degree

Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

slide55
Figure 2.11: Percentage of Latino Students (grades 7-12) Who Have Had Sex by Generation and National Origin*, 1995

Source: Harris, 1999

*Data not available for 3rd generation Cuban

and 1st generation Puerto Rican

slide56
Figure 2.11: Percentage of Latino Students (grades 7-12) Who Have Had Sex by Generation and National Origin*, 1995
  • Foreign born (32%) and native born (32%) children of Mexican immigrant parents, are less likely to have had sex than 3rd generation youth (41%), as are the children of Central and South American youth (37%, 34%, and 40% respectively)
  • 45% of 2nd and 48% of 3rd generation Puerto Rican students have had sex
  • Whereas more 2nd (31%) than 1st generation (25%) Cuban students have had sex

Source: Harris, 1999

*Data not available for 3rd generation Cuban and 1st generation Puerto Rican

figure 2 12 protected first sex among mexican students grades 7 12 by generation 1995
Figure 2.12: Protected First Sex among Mexican Students (grades 7-12) by Generation, 1995

Source: Harris, 1999

figure 2 12 protected first sex among mexican students grades 7 12 by generation 199558
Figure 2.12: Protected First Sex among Mexican Students (grades 7-12) by Generation, 1995

Birth control use increased with each generation:

  • 42% of 1st generation
  • 52% of 2nd generation
  • 56% of 3rd generation

Source: Harris, 1999

slide59
Figure 2.13: Percentage of Latino Students (grades 7-12) Who Smoke Regularly by Generation and National Origin*, 1995

Source: Harris, 1999

*Data not available for 3rd generation

Cuban and 1st generation Puerto Rican

slide60
Figure 2.13: Percentage of Latino Students (grades 7-12) Who Smoke Regularly by Generation and National Origin*, 1995

For 1st generation youth:

  • 8% of Mexicans, 9% of Central and South Americans, and 5% of Cubans smoke regularly

For 2nd generation youth:

  • 11% of Mexicans, 16% of Central and South Americans, and 23% of Puerto Ricans smoke

For 3rd generation youth:

  • 16% of Mexicans, 25% of Central and South Americans, and 30% of Puerto Ricans smoke

Source: Harris, 1999

*Data not available for 3rd generation Cuban and 1st generation Puerto Rican

slide61
Figure 2.14: Percentage of Latino Students (grades 7-12) Drunk at Least Monthly by Generation and National Origin*, 1995

Source: Harris, 1999

*Data not available for 3rd generation Cuban and 1st generation Puerto Rican

slide62
Figure 2.14: Percentage of Latino Students (grades 7-12) Drunk at Least Monthly by Generation and National Origin*, 1995

For 1st generation youth:

  • 5% of Mexicans, 8% of Central and South Americans, and 6% of Cubans drunk monthly

For 2nd generation youth:

  • 15% of Mexicans, 11% of Cubans and Central and South Americans, and 14% of Puerto Ricans

For 3rd generation youth:

  • 21% of Mexicans, 18% of Central and South Americans, and 14% of Puerto Ricans

Source: Harris, 1999

*Data not available for 3rd generation Cuban and 1st generation Puerto Rican

chapter 3

Chapter 3:

Education

figure 3 1 math and reading scores of kindergartners by race ethnicity 1998
Figure 3.1: Math and Reading Scores of Kindergartners by Race/Ethnicity, 1998

Source: Wirt et al., 2000

figure 3 1 math and reading scores of kindergartners by race ethnicity 199865
Figure 3.1: Math and Reading Scores of Kindergartners by Race/Ethnicity, 1998

Math:

  • 40% of Latinos score in the bottom quartile
  • 39% of African Americans score in the bottom 25%
  • 18% of whites score in the bottom quartile

Reading:

  • 42% of Latinos score in the bottom quartile
  • 34% of African Americans score in the bottom quartile
  • 18% of whites score in the bottom quartile

Source: Wirt et al., 2000

slide66
Figure 3.2: Percentage of 6-18 Year Olds’ Mothers with less than a High School Education by Race/Ethnicity, 1974-1999

Source: Wirt et al., 2000

slide67
Figure 3.2: Percentage of 6-18 Year Olds’ Mothers with less than a High School Education by Race/Ethnicity, 1974-1999

While decreasing for all groups, the decrease has been less sharp among Latinos. From 1974 to 1999 the percentage of youth whose mothers had less than a high school education decreased from:

  • 62% to 49% for Latino youth
  • 58% to 20% for African American youth
  • 27% to 7% for white youth

Source: Wirt et al., 2000

figure 3 3 math scores of 9 year olds by race ethnicity 1982 1999
Figure 3.3: Math Scores of 9 Year Olds by Race/ Ethnicity, 1982-1999

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 3 3 math scores of 9 year olds by race ethnicity 1982 199969
Figure 3.3: Math Scores of 9 Year Olds by Race/Ethnicity, 1982-1999

From 1982 to 1999 the math scores of 9 year olds increased from:

  • 204 to 213 for Latinos
  • 195 to 211 for African Americans
  • 224 to 239 for whites

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 3 4 reading scores of 9 year olds by race ethnicity 1980 199971
Figure 3.4: Reading Scores of 9 Year Olds by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-1999

From 1980 to 1999 the reading scores of 9 year olds:

  • Increased from 190 to 193 for Latinos
  • Decreased from 189 to 186 for African Americans
  • Remained steady at 221 for whites

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 3 5 math scores of 17 year olds by race ethnicity 1982 199973
Figure 3.5: Math Scores of 17 Year Olds by Race/Ethnicity, 1982-1999

From 1982 to 1999 the math scores of 17 year olds increased:

  • From 277 to 293 for Latinos
  • From 272 to 283 for African Americans
  • From 304 to 315 for whites

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 3 6 reading scores of 17 year olds by race ethnicity 1980 199975
Figure 3.6: Reading Scores of 17 Year Olds by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-1999

From 1980 to 1999 the reading scores of 17 year olds increased:

  • From 261 to 271 for Latinos
  • From 243 to 264 for African Americans
  • From 293 to 295 for whites

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 3 7 advanced coursetaking by 1998 high school graduates by race ethnicity
Figure 3.7: Advanced Coursetaking by 1998 High School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity

Source: Wirt et al., 2002

figure 3 7 advanced coursetaking by 1998 high school graduates by race ethnicity77
Figure 3.7: Advanced Coursetaking by 1998 High School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity

In 1998:

  • Latinos were less likely to take advanced science courses (49%), advanced math courses (26%) and advanced English courses (22%) than whites (64%, 45%, and 31%) or African Americans (55%, 40%, and 27%)

Source: Wirt et al., 2002

figure 3 8 advanced placement exams taken by high school seniors by race ethnicity 1984 1996
Figure 3.8: Advanced Placement Exams Taken by High School Seniors by Race/Ethnicity, 1984-1996

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 3 8 advanced placement exams taken by high school seniors by race ethnicity 1984 199679
Figure 3.8: Advanced Placement Exams Taken by High School Seniors by Race/Ethnicity, 1984-1996

From 1984-1996, the rates of high school seniors who took an AP exam rose among all groups:

  • From 24% to 74% for Latinos
  • From 8% to 32% for African Americans
  • From 48% to 133% for whites

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 3 9 sat verbal scores by race ethnicity 1976 199581
Figure 3.9: SAT Verbal Scores by Race/Ethnicity, 1976-1995

From 1976-1995, mean verbal SAT scores rose among all groups:

  • From 371 to 376 for Mexicans
  • From 364 to 372 for Puerto Ricans
  • From 332 to 356 for African Americans
  • From 451 to 448 for whites

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 3 10 sat math scores by race ethnicity 1976 199583
Figure 3.10: SAT Math Scores by Race/Ethnicity, 1976-1995

From 1976-1995, mean math SAT scores rose among all groups:

  • From 410 to 426 for Mexicans
  • From 401 to 411 for Puerto Ricans
  • From 354 to 388 for African Americans
  • From 493 to 498 for whites

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

slide84
Figure 3.11: The Road to a Bachelor’s Degree among College-Qualified 1992 High School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity, 1994

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

slide85
Figure 3.11: The Road to a Bachelor’s Degree among College-Qualified 1992 High School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity, 1994
  • Latino high school students (78%) were almost as likely to expect to earn a bachelor’s degree as college-qualified whites (83%) and African Americans (83%)
  • Latinos (69%), however, are less likely to plan to attend a 4-yr college or university than whites (76%) or African Americans (79%)

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 3 12 percentage of high school graduates qualified to attend college by race ethnicity 1994
Figure 3.12: Percentage of High School Graduates Qualified to Attend College by Race/Ethnicity, 1994

Source: Wirt et al., 2000

figure 3 12 percentage of high school graduates qualified to attend college by race ethnicity 199487
Figure 3.12: Percentage of High School Graduates Qualified to Attend College by Race/Ethnicity, 1994
  • About half of Latinos (47%) and African Americans (53%), and one-third (32%) of whites were unqualified to attend college
  • Whereas, 35% of whites were highly or very highly qualified, compared to 16% of African Americans and 19% of Latinos

Source: Wirt et al., 2000

slide88
Figure 3.13: Percentage of 25-34 Year Old Latinos Who Had Not Completed High School by Generation, 1979, 1989, 1996

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

slide89
Figure 3.13: Percentage of 25-34 Year Old Latinos Who Had Not Completed High School by Generation, 1979, 1989, 1996

From 1979 to 1996:

  • Dropout rates of Mexican-origin youth were higher, yet improved more, than those of Latinos from other backgrounds
  • 1st generation rates declined from 75% to 61% among Mexican-origin Latinos and increased slightly from 31% to 32% among other Latinos
  • For 3rd generation Latinos, dropout rates declined from 33% to 26% among Mexican-origin Latinos and increased slightly from 18% to 20% among other Latinos

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 3 14 percentage of college attendance among high school graduates by race ethnicity 2002
Figure 3.14: Percentage of College Attendance among High School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity, 2002

Source: US Census Bureau, 2004

figure 3 14 percentage of college attendance among high school graduates by race ethnicity 200291
Figure 3.14: Percentage of College Attendance among High School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity, 2002

Latinos are less likely than their African American and white counterparts to go to college. In 2002:

  • 32% of Latino high school graduates (ages 25-29) were enrolled in college
  • 40% of African American graduates were in college
  • Almost half (47%) of white graduates were in college

Source: US Census Bureau, 2004

figure 3 15 percentage of 25 29 year olds with college degree by race ethnicity 1975 2000
Figure 3.15: Percentage of 25-29 Year Olds with College Degree by Race/Ethnicity, 1975-2000

Source: US Census Bureau, 2000

figure 3 15 percentage of 25 29 year olds with a college degree by race ethnicity 1975 2000
Figure 3.15: Percentage of 25-29 Year Olds with a College Degree by Race/Ethnicity, 1975-2000

The rate of Latinos with a college degree increased more modestly over the last quarter-century than their white and African American counterparts:

  • From 9% to 10% among Latinos
  • From 11% to 18% among African Americans
  • From 23% to 34% among whites

Source: US Census Bureau, 2000

slide95
Figure 4.1: Percentage of Youth (ages 15-18) Who Lived in Two-Parent Households by Race/Ethnicity, 1972-1997

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

slide96
Figure 4.1: Percentage of Youth (ages 15-18) Who Lived in Two-Parent Households by Race/Ethnicity, 1972-1997

The proportion of youth living with both parents decreased across groups:

  • From 77% to 67% among Latinos
  • From 62% to 40% among African Americans
  • From 88% to 78% among whites

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 2 family structure of youth ages 5 17 by race ethnicity 200198
Figure 4.2: Family Structure of Youth (ages 5-17) by Race/Ethnicity, 2001

Latino and white youth are more likely to live with two parents than African American youth:

  • Among Latino youth, 65% lived with two parents, and over one-quarter (27%) lived with one parent
  • Among African American youth, 38% lived with two parents and over half (51%) lived with one parent
  • Among white youth, 76% lived with two parents and 20% lived with one parent

Source: Wirt et al., 2003

slide99
Figure 4.3: Percentage of 15-18 Year Olds’ Mothers with at least a High School Education by Race/Ethnicity, 1972-1999

Source: Wirt et al., 1998; Wirt et al., 2001

slide100
Figure 4.3: Percentage of 15-18 Year Olds’ Mothers with at least a High School Education by Race/Ethnicity, 1972-1999

Since the early 1970s:

  • The proportion of teens with more educated mothers increased across groups
  • Latino teens were less likely than white or African American youth to have mothers with a high school education
  • The proportion of African American teens raised by more educated mothers increased more rapidly than that of Latino teens

Source: Wirt et al., 1998; Wirt et al., 2001

slide101
Figure 4.4: Percentage of 15-18 Year Olds’ Fathers with at least a High School Education by Race/Ethnicity, 1972-1999

Source: Wirt et al., 1998; Wirt et al., 2001

slide102
Figure 4.4: Percentage of 15-18 Year Olds’ Fathers with at least a High School Education by Race/Ethnicity, 1972-1999
  • Since 1972, the mothers and fathers of Latino teens were very similar in terms of high school education
  • Latino teens have consistently been less likely than white or African American youth to have more educated fathers
  • By 1999, the proportion of African American teens (85%) raised by high school educated fathers more closely resembled that of white teens (91%) than that of Latino teens (51%)

Source: Wirt et al., 1998; Wirt et al., 2001

figure 4 5 percentage of 15 18 year olds mothers who were employed 1972 1997
Figure 4.5: Percentage of 15-18 Year Olds’ Mothers Who Were Employed, 1972-1997

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 5 percentage of 15 18 year olds mothers who were employed 1972 1997104
Figure 4.5: Percentage of 15-18 Year Olds’ Mothers Who Were Employed, 1972-1997
  • Since 1972, Latino teens’ mothers were consistently less likely than those of African American and white teens to be employed
  • Yet, since 1972, Latino mothers have entered the work force in increasing numbers (from 32% to 56%)
  • In 1972, half of African American (51%) and white (49%) mothers were employed
  • By 1999, 68% of African American and 78% of white mothers were working

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 6 percentage of 15 18 year olds born to a teen mother by race ethnicity 1972 1997
Figure 4.6: Percentage of 15-18 Year Olds Born to a Teen Mother by Race/Ethnicity, 1972-1997

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 6 percentage of 15 18 year olds born to a teen mother by race ethnicity 1972 1997106
Figure 4.6: Percentage of 15-18 Year Olds Born to a Teen Mother by Race/Ethnicity, 1972-1997
  • Since 1972, the proportion of teens born to a teen mother rose for all groups, then in 1992, it started to decline
  • Latinos (12% to 16%) and African Americans (17% to 22%) experienced net increases in the likelihood of having been born to a teen mother
  • By 1997, the proportion of white teens born to a teen mother declined to its 1972 level (8%)

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 7 median income of families with 15 18 year olds 1972 1997108
Figure 4.7: Median Income of Families with 15-18 Year Olds, 1972-1997

From 1972 to 1997:

  • Latino teens’ families were the only to experience a net decline in median income (from $32,000 to $29,000)
  • African American families’ income decreased slightly from its 1972 level ($29,000), yet returned to this level by 1997, matching that of Latino families
  • The median income of white teens’ families increased overall from $52,000 to $55,000

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 8 percentage of youth ages 15 18 with 0 or 1 sibling in the household 1972 1997
Figure 4.8: Percentage of Youth (ages 15-18) with 0 or 1 Sibling in the Household, 1972-1997

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 8 percentage of youth ages 15 18 with 0 or 1 sibling in the household 1972 1997110
Figure 4.8: Percentage of Youth (ages 15-18) with 0 or 1 Sibling in the Household, 1972-1997

From 1972 to 1997:

  • Youth from all groups moved towards having 0 or 1 sibling, increasing from:
      • 24% to 47% among Latino teens
      • 26% to 57% among African American teens
      • 43% to 67% among white teens
  • Latino teens were consistently less likely to have fewer (0 or 1) siblings than African American or white teens

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 9 percentage of youth ages 15 18 with 4 or more siblings in the household 1972 1997
Figure 4.9: Percentage of Youth (ages 15-18) with 4 or more Siblings in the Household, 1972-1997

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

figure 4 9 percentage of youth ages 15 18 with 4 or more siblings in the household 1972 1997112
Figure 4.9: Percentage of Youth (ages 15-18) with 4 or more Siblings in the Household, 1972-1997

From 1972 to 1997, youth from all groups were less likely to live in households with 4 or more siblings, decreasing from:

  • 37% to 10% among Latino teens
  • 39% to 8% among African American teens
  • 17% to 4% among white teens

Source: Wirt et al., 1998

chapter 5

Chapter 5:

Access to Health Insurance and Health Care

figure 5 1 type of insurance coverage by race ethnicity 2002115
Figure 5.1: Type of Insurance Coverage by Race/Ethnicity, 2002
  • Latinos are less likely to have employer-based insurance (42%) than African Americans (50%) or whites (67%)
  • Latinos (20%) are more likely than African Americans (23%) and less likely than whites (8%) to be insured by Medicaid

Source: Mills and Bhandari, 2003

figure 5 2 health insurance coverage by race ethnicity 2002117
Figure 5.2: Health Insurance Coverage by Race/Ethnicity, 2002
  • Latinos are less likely to be insured (68%) than African Americans (80%) or whites (89%)

Source: Mills and Bhandari, 2003

figure 5 3 health insurance coverage among latinos by place of birth and national origin 1997
Figure 5.3: Health Insurance Coverage among Latinos by Place of Birth and National Origin, 1997

Source: Schur and

Feldman, 2001

figure 5 3 health insurance coverage among latinos by place of birth and national origin 1997119
Figure 5.3: Health Insurance Coverage among Latinos by Place of Birth and National Origin, 1997
  • US-born Latinos are more likely to be insured (76%) than foreign-born Latinos
  • Puerto Ricans are more likely to be insured (81%), than Latinos of Cuban (78%), Mexican (62%) and Central and South American (61%) descent

Source: Schur and Feldman, 2001

figure 5 4 usual source of health care by race ethnicity 2001121
Figure 5.4: Usual Source of Health Care by Race/Ethnicity, 2001
  • A doctor’s office serves as the usual source of care for 59% of Latinos, 66% of African Americans and 80% of whites
  • A community health center is the primary source of care for 20% of Latinos, 10% of African Americans, and 7% of whites
  • Latinos (14%) are more likely to rely on nothing or an emergency room as their usual source of care than African Americans (13%) or whites (6%)

Source: Collins et al., 2002

figure 5 5 adults with a regular doctor by race ethnicity 2001123
Figure 5.5: Adults with a Regular Doctor by Race/Ethnicity, 2001

Latino adults (ages 18 and older) are less likely than African American or white adults to have a regular doctor:

  • 57% of Latinos have a regular doctor
  • 70% of African Americans do
  • 80% of whites do

Source: Collins et al., 2002

figure 5 6 adults with a regular doctor by national origin 2001125
Figure 5.6: Adults with a Regular Doctor by National Origin, 2001

Among Latino adults (ages 18 and older), Puerto Ricans are the most likely to have a regular doctor:

  • 71% of Puerto Rican-origin Latinos have a regular doctor
  • 51% of Central American-origin Latinos do
  • 50% of Mexican-origin Latinos do

Source: Collins et al., 2002

figure 5 7 interactions with doctors by race ethnicity 2001127
Figure 5.7: Interactions with Doctors by Race/Ethnicity, 2001
  • Latinos (33%) are more likely than African Americans (23%) and whites (16%) to report communication problems with their doctor
  • Latinos (57%) are also less likely than African Americans (69%) and whites (72%) to report a high level of confidence in their doctor

Source: Collins et al., 2002

figure 5 8 uninsured rates among youth ages 10 18 by race ethnicity 2002
Figure 5.8: Uninsured Rates among Youth (ages 10-18) by Race/Ethnicity, 2002

Source: Newacheck et al., 2004

figure 5 8 uninsured rates among youth ages 10 18 by race ethnicity 2002129
Figure 5.8: Uninsured Rates among Youth (ages 10-18) by Race/Ethnicity, 2002
  • Latino youth are the most likely to be uninsured (28%)
  • 12% of African American youth are uninsured
  • 8% of White youth are uninsured

Source: Newacheck et al., 2004

figure 5 9 type of insurance for insured youth ages 0 17 by race ethnicity 2001
Figure 5.9: Type of Insurance for Insured Youth (ages 0-17) by Race/Ethnicity, 2001

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

figure 5 9 type of insurance for insured youth ages 0 17 by race ethnicity 2001131
Figure 5.9: Type of Insurance for Insured Youth (ages 0-17) by Race/Ethnicity, 2001

All groups of youth are more likely to have private than public insurance

  • Latino youth are the least likely to have either private (44%) or public (37%) insurance
  • Among African American youth, 52% have private and 42% have public insurance
  • Among white youth, 80% have private and 19% have public insurance

Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

slide132
Figure 5.10: Youth (ages 10-19) with No Health Care Visit in the Last Year by Insurance Status and Race/Ethnicity, 1997

Source: MaKay et al., 2000

slide133
Figure 5.10: Youth (ages 10-19) with No Health Care Visit in the Last Year by Insurance Status and Race/Ethnicity, 1997
  • Almost half of uninsured (47%) and one-fifth (19%) of insured Latino youth did not have a health care visit in the past year
  • Among African American youth, 48% without insurance and 15% with it did not have a recent health care visit
  • Among white youth, 27% without insurance and 13% with insurance, did not have a recent health care visit

Source: MaKay et al., 2000

figure 5 11 sources of sexual health information for youth ages 12 17 2000
Figure 5.11: Sources of Sexual Health Information for Youth (ages 12-17), 2000

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001

figure 5 11 sources of sexual health information for youth ages 12 17 2000135
Figure 5.11: Sources of Sexual Health Information for Youth (ages 12-17), 2000
  • Teens are most likely to receive sexual health information from a health class (75%) and parents (70%)
  • Teens receive this information almost as often from TV (60%) as from a health care provider (62%), followed by friends (52%) and the internet (28%)
  • A large proportion of teens would like to receive more information from a health care provider (48%), health class (42%) and parents (33%)

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001

figure 5 12 internet access of young people ages 15 25 2000137
Figure 5.12: Internet Access of Young People (ages 15-25), 2000
  • Latinos (75%) are less likely than African American (87%) or white (94%) youth to have gone online
  • Latino youth (55%) are also less likely than African American (66%) or white (80%) youth to have home internet access

Source: Ridout, 2001

chapter 6

Chapter 6:

Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy and Birth

figure 6 1 trends in sexual experience among high school students by race ethnicity 1993 2001
Figure 6.1: Trends in Sexual Experience among High School Students by Race/ Ethnicity, 1993-2001

Source: CDC, 1995-2002

figure 6 1 trends in sexual experience among high school students by race ethnicity 1993 2001140
Figure 6.1: Trends in Sexual Experience among High School Students by Race/ Ethnicity, 1993-2001

From 1993 to 2001, the proportion of youth who ever had sex declined for all groups:

  • African American youth experienced by far the largest decline (from 89% to 69% among males and from 70% to 53% among females)
  • The drop in youth who ever had sex was similar for Latinas (48% to 44%) and white males (49% to 45%) and slightly greater for white females (47% to 41%)
  • Latino males experienced a minimal decline (from 64% to 63%)

Source: CDC, 1995-2002

figure 6 2 percentage of youth ages 15 19 who have had sex by gender and age 1995
Figure 6.2: Percentage of Youth (ages 15-19) Who Have Had Sex by Gender and Age, 1995

Source: Abma et al., 1997

figure 6 2 percentage of youth ages 15 19 who have had sex by gender and age 1995142
Figure 6.2: Percentage of Youth (ages 15-19) Who Have Had Sex by Gender and Age, 1995

The proportion of teens who have had sex is greater among males than females and rises with age:

  • Among 19 year olds, 85% of males and 76% of females have had sex
  • Among 15 year olds, 27% of males and 22% of females have had sex

Source: Abma et al., 1997

slide143
Figure 6.3: Percentage of High School Students Who Had Sex by Age 13 by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, 2001

Source: CDC, 2002

slide144
Figure 6.3: Percentage of High School Students Who Had Sex by Age 13 by Race/ Ethnicity and Gender, 2001

Sex at very early ages is more common among males than females:

  • 11% of Latino males and 4% of Latinas reported that they had sex by age 13
  • African American males were most likely to have had sex by age 13 (26%); 8% of African American females did
  • 6% of white males and 3% of white females had sex by age 13

Source: CDC, 2002

slide145
Figure 6.4: Percentage of High School Students Who Have Had Non-Voluntary Sex by Race/ Ethnicity and Gender, 2001

Source: CDC, 2002

slide146
Figure 6.4: Percentage of High School Students Who Have Had Non-Voluntary Sex by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, 2001

Females and teens of color report higher levels of forced sex than male or white teens:

  • 6% of Latino males and 12% of Latinas reported ever having been forced to have sex
  • 8% of African American males and 11% of African American females reported non-voluntary sex
  • 4% of white males and 10% of white females reported non-voluntary sex

Source: CDC, 2002

figure 6 5 non voluntary sex among females by age at first sex and race ethnicity 1995
Figure 6.5: Non-Voluntary Sex among Females by Age at First Sex and Race/Ethnicity, 1995

Source: Abma et al., 1997

figure 6 5 non voluntary sex among females by age at first sex and race ethnicity 1995148
Figure 6.5: Non-Voluntary Sex among Females by Age at First Sex and Race/Ethnicity, 1995

Among those who had sex before the age of 16:

  • 18% of Latinas and 15% of African American and white females reported they were forced to have sex

Between 16-19 years of age:

  • 7% of Latina, 6% of African American and 5% of white females reported they were forced to have sex

After the age of 19:

  • 5% of Latinas, 5% African Americans and 3% of whites

Source: Abma et al., 1997

slide149
Figure 6.6: Percentage of Sexually Experienced High School Students Who are Sexually Active by Gender and Race/Ethnicity, 2001

Source: CDC, 2002

slide150
Figure 6.6: Percentage of Sexually Experienced High School Students Who are Sexually Active by Gender and Race/Ethnicity, 2001

Among sexually experienced youth:

  • Three-fourths of African American males (76%) and females (74%) were sexually active
  • Equal proportions (78%) of Latinas and white females were sexually active
  • 70% of Latino and 66% of white males were sexually active

Source: CDC, 2002

figure 6 7 percentage of high school students with 4 sexual partners by race ethnicity 2001
Figure 6.7: Percentage of High School Students with ≥ 4 Sexual Partners by Race/ Ethnicity, 2001

Source: CDC, 2002

figure 6 7 percentage of high school students with 4 sexual partners by race ethnicity 2001152
Figure 6.7: Percentage of High School Students with ≥ 4 Sexual Partners by Race/ Ethnicity, 2001

The proportion of students with multiple partners varies greatly by race/ethnicity and gender:

  • 21% of Latino males and 10% of Latinas report 4 or more partners
  • 39% of African American males and 16% of females report 4 or more partners
  • 13% of white males and 11% of females report 4 or more partners

Source: CDC, 2002

figure 6 8 sexual behavior patterns of males and females race ethnicity high school students 2001
Figure 6.8: Sexual Behavior Patterns of Males and Females Race/Ethnicity, High School Students, 2001

Source: CDC, 2002

figure 6 8 sexual behavior patterns of males and females race ethnicity high school students 2001154
Figure 6.8: Sexual Behavior Patterns of Males and Females Race/Ethnicity, High School Students, 2001

Among Latinos:

  • Males are more likely to have ever had sex and multiple partners and less likely to be sexually active than Latinas

Among African Americans:

  • Males are also more likely to have ever had sex and multiple partners, yet sexually experienced males and females are equally likely to be sexually active

Among whites:

  • Males and females are equally likely to have ever had sex or multiple partners, yet sexually experienced females are more likely than males to be sexually active

Source: CDC, 2002

figure 6 9 condom use at last sex by race ethnicity and gender high school students 1993 2001
Figure 6.9: Condom Use at Last Sex by Race/ Ethnicity and Gender, High School Students, 1993-2001

Source: CDC, 1995-2002

figure 6 9 condom use at last sex by race ethnicity and gender high school students 1993 2001156
Figure 6.9: Condom Use at Last Sex by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, High School Students, 1993-2001

From 1993 to 2001, condom use was highest among African American males and lowest among Latinas, yet condom use increased across all groups from:

  • 37% to 48% among Latinas
  • 55% to 59% among Latino males
  • 48% to 61% among African American females
  • 64% to 73% among African American males
  • 48% to 51% among white females
  • 58% to 64% among white males

Source: CDC, 1995-2002

slide157
Figure 6.10: Trends in Pill Use at Last Sex by Race/ Ethnicity and Gender, High School Students, 1993-2001

Source: CDC, 1995-2002

slide158
Figure 6.10: Trends in Pill Use at Last Sex by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, High School Students, 1993-2001

From 1993 to 2001 pill use among HS students:

  • Declined among Latino males (from 10% to 9%) and females (from 15% to 10%)
  • Declined among African American males (from 10% to 8%) and females (from 21% to 8%)
  • Increased among white males (from 17% to 19%) and females (from 24% to 27%)

Source: CDC, 1995-2002

slide159
Figure 6.11: Use of Alcohol & Other Drugs at Last Sex by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, High School Students, 2001

Source: CDC, 2002

slide160
Figure 6.11: Use of Alcohol & Other Drugs at Last Sex by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, High School Students, 2001

Males and whites are more likely than females and students of color to have used a substance at last sex:

  • 26% of Latino males and 22% of females used a substance at last sex
  • 24% of African American males and 10% of females used a substance at last sex
  • 34% of white males and 23% of females used a substance at last sex

Source: CDC, 2002

figure 6 12 trends in pregnancy rates ages 15 19 by race ethnicity 1990 1999
Figure 6.12: Trends in Pregnancy Rates (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 1990-1999

Source: Ventura et al., 2003

figure 6 12 trends in pregnancy rates ages 15 19 by race ethnicity 1990 1999162
Figure 6.12: Trends in Pregnancy Rates* (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 1990-1999

During the 1990s, pregnancy rates decreased among all teens, from:

  • 156 to 133 pregnancies per 1,000 Latina teens
  • 221 to 154 pregnancies per 1,000 African American teens
  • 87 to 60 pregnancies per 1,000 white teens

Source: Ventura et al., 2003

*pregnancies per 1,000 females

slide163
Figure 6.13: Pregnancy Rates among Sexually Experienced and Sexually Active Females (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 1995

Source: Ventura et al., 2000

slide164
Figure 6.13: Pregnancy Rates among Sexually Experienced and Sexually Active Females (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 1995

Among teens who ever had sex there were:

  • 291 pregnancies per 1,000 Latina teens
  • 305 pregnancies/1,000 African American teen females
  • 142 pregnancies/1,000 white teen females

Among sexually experienced teens there were:

  • 314 pregnancies per 1,000 Latina teens
  • 326 per 1,000 African American teen females
  • 156 per 1,000 white teen females

Source: Ventura et al., 2000

figure 6 14 abortion ratios ages 15 19 by race ethnicity 1990 1999
Figure 6.14: Abortion Ratios (ages 15-19) by Race/ Ethnicity, 1990-1999

Source: Ventura et al., 2003

figure 6 14 abortion ratios ages 15 19 by race ethnicity 1990 1999166
Figure 6.14: Abortion Ratios* (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 1990-1999

From 1990 to 1999, the proportion of teen pregnancies that resulted in abortions:

  • Barely declined among Latinas (from 25 to 24 abortions) and African American (from 38 to 37 abortions) females
  • Decreased significantly among white females (from 37 to 26 abortions)

Source: Ventura et al., 2003

* Abortions per 1,000 pregnancies

figure 6 15 abortion rates ages 15 19 by race ethnicity 1990 1999168
Figure 6.15: Abortion Rates (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 1990-1999

From 1990 to 1999, the number of abortions per 1,000 teens declined:

  • From 39 to 32 abortions among Latinas
  • From 84 to 58 abortions among African American females
  • From 32to 16 abortions among white females

Source: Ventura et al., 2003

figure 6 16 birth rates ages 15 19 by race ethnicity 1990 2001
Figure 6.16: Birth Rates (ages 15-19) by Race/ Ethnicity, 1990-2001

Source: Ventura, Matthews & Hamilton et al., 2001; Martin et al., 2002

figure 6 16 birth rates ages 15 19 by race ethnicity 1990 2001170
Figure 6.16: Birth Rates* (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 1990-2001

From 1990 to 2001, teen birth rates declined for all groups:

  • For Latinas, the decline was small (from 100 to 92 births)
  • The largest decline was found among African American females (from 113 to 73 births)
  • White teens, having the lowest teen birth rate of all groups, demonstrated a modest decline (from 43 to 30 births) as well

Source: Ventura, Matthews & Hamilton et al., 2001; Martin et al., 2002

*Births per 1,000 females

figure 6 17 birth rates ages 15 17 by race ethnicity 1990 2001
Figure 6.17: Birth Rates (Ages 15-17) by Race/ Ethnicity, 1990-2001

Source: Ventura, Matthews & Hamilton et al., 2001; Martin et al., 2002

figure 6 18 birth rates ages 18 19 by race ethnicity 1990 2001
Figure 6.18: Birth Rates (ages 18-19) by Race/ Ethnicity, 1990-2001

Source: Ventura, Matthews & Hamilton et al., 2001; Martin et al., 2002

figures 6 17 and 6 18 birth rates by age group and race ethnicity 1990 2001
Figures 6.17 and 6.18: Birth Rates* by Age Group and Race/Ethnicity, 1990-2001

There is a marked difference in the birth rates of younger and older teens of all groups:

  • Among younger teens, birth rates declined 14% among Latinas, 46% for African American teens and 39% for whites
  • Among older teens, the Latina birth rate fell by 3%, the African American rate fell by 26% and rates among whites declined by 20%

Source: Ventura, Matthews & Hamilton et al., 2001; Martin et al., 2002

*Births per 1,000 females

chapter 7

Chapter 7:

STIs and HIV/AIDS

figure 7 1 chlamydia rates ages 15 19 by race ethnicity and gender 2002176
Figure 7.1: Chlamydia Rates* (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, 2002

Female teens of all race/ethnicities have higher chlamydia rates than their male counterparts:

  • 2,843 per 100,000 Latinas were diagnosed with chlamydia vs. 469 per 100,000 Latino males
  • African American youth have the highest rates of all groups (8,489 per 100,000 females and 1,652 for males)
  • White youth have the lowest rates (1,318 for females and 135 for males)

Source: CDC, 2003

*Chlamydia infections per 100,000 teens

figure 7 2 gonorrhea rates ages 15 19 by race ethnicity and gender 2002178
Figure 7.2: Gonorrhea Rates* (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, 2002

Gonorrhea rates of Latino teens are closer to those of whites than African American teens:

  • 317 per 100,000 Latinas were diagnosed with gonorrhea, compared to 125 per 100,000 Latino males
  • African American youth have the highest rates of all groups (3,308 per 100,000 females and 1,680 for males)
  • White youth have the lowest rates (196 for females and 38 for males)

Source: CDC, 2003

*Gonorrhea infections per 100,000 teens

figure 7 3 syphilis rates ages 15 19 by race ethnicity and gender 2002180
Figure 7.3: Syphilis Rates* (ages 15-19) by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, 2002

Latino teen syphilis rates fall between African American and white teen rates:

  • 1.7 per 100,000 Latinas and 2.2 per 100,000 Latino males were diagnosed with syphilis
  • African American youth have the highest rates of all groups (11.3 per 100,000 females and 6.0 for males)
  • White youth have the lowest rates (0.4 for females and 0.1 for males)

Source: CDC, 2003

*Syphilis infections per 100,000 teens

figure 7 4 aids cases among latinos by place of birth 2001182
Figure 7.4: AIDS Cases among Latinos by Place of Birth, 2001
  • Latinos account for 14% of the US population, yet 20% of all new AIDS cases
  • Among Latinos, men account for the vast majority (81%) of cumulative AIDS cases
  • Of the Latino AIDS cases reported in 2001, the majority were among people born in the US (43%) or Puerto Rico (22%), followed by Mexico (14%), Other (12%), Central and South America (7%), and Cuba (2%)

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003

figure 7 5 new aids cases among 13 19 year olds by race ethnicity 2001
Figure 7.5: New AIDS Cases among 13-19 Year Olds by Race/Ethnicity, 2001

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003

figure 7 5 new aids cases among 13 19 year olds by race ethnicity 2001184
Figure 7.5: New AIDS Cases among 13-19 Year Olds by Race/Ethnicity, 2001

Over half of all new HIV infections are estimated to occur among those under the age of 25 and disproportionately affect youth of color:

  • Latino youth account for 21% of new AIDS cases, yet 15% of the US youth population
  • African American youth account for 61% of new AIDS cases
  • White youth account for 18% of new AIDS cases

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003

figure 7 6 estimated aids cases among latino males by exposure category 2001
Figure 7.6: Estimated AIDS Cases among Latino Males by Exposure Category, 2001

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003

figure 7 7 estimated aids cases among latinas by exposure category 2001
Figure 7.7: Estimated AIDS Cases among Latinas by Exposure Category, 2001

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003

figures 7 6 and 7 7 estimated aids cases among latinos by exposure category 2001
Figures 7.6 and 7.7: Estimated AIDS Cases among Latinos by Exposure Category, 2001
  • Sex with an HIV-infected male is the most common route of HIV infection for both Latino men (48%) and women (65%)
  • IV drug use is the second most common route of infection (29% for males and 32% for females)
  • 16% of Latino males become infected by having sex with an HIV-infected woman

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003

figure 7 8 reasons for postponing care among people with hiv aids by race ethnicity 1996
Figure 7.8: Reasons for Postponing Care among People with HIV/AIDS, by Race/ Ethnicity, 1996

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003

figure 7 8 reasons for postponing care among people with hiv aids by race ethnicity 1996189
Figure 7.8: Reasons for Postponing Care among People with HIV/AIDS, by Race/ Ethnicity, 1996
  • Competing needs is the primary reason why Latinos (41%), African Americans (40%) and whites (32%) postpone care
  • One-fifth of Latinos and African-Americans report that being too sick (20% and 19%) and lack of transportation (19% and 20%) are barriers to care
  • Among whites, 14% report they are too sick to get care and 11% report lack of transportation

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003