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  1. A Future with Promise:Latino Adolescent Reproductive Health

  2. A Future with Promise:A Chartbook on Latino Adolescent Reproductive Health Anne Driscoll, DrPH Claire Brindis, DrPh M. Antonia Biggs, PhD L. Teresa Valderrama, MPH Center for Reproductive Health Research and Policy, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and the Institute for Health Policy Studies University of California, San Francisco http://crhrp.ucsf.edu

  3. Chapter 1: Population

  4. Figure 1.1: Projected US Population by Race/ Ethnicity, 2000-2025 Source: US Census, 2000

  5. Figure 1.1: Projected US Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2000-2025 In 2000, the US population was: • 12.5% Latino • 12.2% African American • 71.4% white By 2025, the US population is projected to be: • 18.2% Latino • 12.9% African American • 62.0% white Source: US Census, 2000

  6. Figure 1.2: Age Distribution by Race/ Ethnicity, 2000 Source: US Census, 2000

  7. Figure 1.2: Age Distribution by Race/ Ethnicity, 2000 The Latino population in the US is young: • 39% of Latinos are under the age of 20, whereas 34% of African Americans and 26% of whites are • 6% of Latinos, 8% of African Americans and 15% of whites are over age 64 Source: US Census, 2000

  8. Figure 1.3: Projected US Youth Population (ages 10-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 2000-2025 Source: US Census, 2000

  9. Figure 1.3: Projected US Youth Population (ages 10-19) by Race/Ethnicity, 2000-2025 • In 2000, 14% of the US youth population was Latino – this will grow to 24% by 2025 • The African American youth population will stay relatively constant between 2000 & 2025 (15% to 14%) • The percentage of the youth population that is white will decrease from 66% to 54% during this same period Source: US Census 2001

  10. Figure 1.4: Latino Population by National Origin, 2000 Source: Therrien & Ramirez, 2001

  11. Figure 1.4: Latino Population by National Origin, 2000 • A majority (66%) of US Latinos are of Mexican descent • 15% are of Central/South American descent • 9% are of Puerto Rican descent • 4% are of Cuban descent Source: Therrien & Ramirez, 2001

  12. Figure 1.5: Percent Increase in Latino Population, 1990-2000

  13. Figure 1.5: Percent Increase in Latino Population by State, 1990-2000 From 1990 to 2000: • North Carolina experienced the greatest percentage increase by state (394%) • 337% in Arkansas • 300% in Georgia • 278% in Tennessee Source: Guzman, 2001 8B

  14. Figure 1.6: Latino Population, 1990

  15. Figure 1.7: Latino Population by State, 2000

  16. Figures 1.6 and 1.7: Latino Population by State, 1990-2000 • In 1990, 31 states had 100,000 Latinos or less; in 2000, 30 states did • The number of states with between 250,000 and 500,000 Latinos rose from 2 to 10 states • The number of states with over 1 million Latinos rose from 5 to 7 states Source: Guzman, 2001

  17. Figure 1.8: Latina Teen Birth Rates (ages 15-19)*, 2000

  18. Figure 1.8: Latina Teen Birth Rates (ages 15-19) by State, 2000 In 2000: • The US Latina teen birth rate was 89 per 1,000 teens • North Carolina had the highest rate (150/1,000) • West Virginia had the lowest rate (9/1,000) Sources: Papillo et al., 2002; US Census Bureau, 2000 8B

  19. Figure 1.9: Percentage of Youth (ages 0-18) in Two-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-2002 Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003 *Data not available for all years

  20. Figure 1.9: Percentage of Youth (ages 0-18) in Two-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-2002 The proportion of youth living with both parents decreased across groups: • From 75% to 65% among Latinos • From 42% to 38% among African Americans • From 81% to 77% among whites (1990-2002)* Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003 *Data not available for all years

  21. Figure 1.10: Percentage of Youth (ages 0-18) in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-2001 Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003 *Data not available for all years

  22. Figure 1.10: Percentage of Youth (ages 0-18) in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 1980-2001 Youth of color are more likely to be poor than whites. Yet, the proportion of youth living in poverty decreased across groups: • From 33% to 27% among Latinos • From 42% to 30% among African Americans • From 12% to 9% among whites (1990-2001)* Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003 *Data not available for all years

  23. Figure 1.12: Percentage of Babies Born at Low Birthweight by Race/Ethnicity and National Origin of Mother, 2001

  24. Figure 1.12: Percentage of Babies Born at Low Birthweight by Race/Ethnicity and National Origin of Mother, 2001 • The proportion of low birthweight babies is lower among Latinos (6%) than among whites (7%) or African Americans (13%) • Puerto Rican mothers are more likely to have low birthweight babies (9%) than Central and South American, Cuban or Mexican mothers (6% for all groups) Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

  25. Figure 1.13: Infant Mortality Rates by Race/ Ethnicity, 1983-2000

  26. Figure 1.13: Infant Mortality Rates* by Race/Ethnicity, 1983-2000 African Americans have the highest infant mortality rates, yet rates have decreased across all groups from: • 9.5 to 5.6 among Latinos • 9.2 to 5.7 among whites • 19.1 to 13.6 among African Americans Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003 *Number of deaths per 1,000 live births

  27. Figure 1.14: Adolescent (ages 15-19) Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, 2000

  28. Figure 1.14: Adolescent (ages 15-19) Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, 2000 Among adolescents, males and African Americans are at the greatest risk of dying. In 2000, there were: • 90 male and 29 female deaths per 1,000 Latino teens • 130 male and 44 female deaths per 1,000 African American teens • 86 male and 41 female deaths per 1,000 white teens Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

  29. Figure 1.15: Causes of Deaths among Adolescent (ages 15-19) Males by Race/Ethnicity, 2000

  30. Figure 1.15: Causes of Death among Adolescent (ages 15-19) Males by Race/Ethnicity, 2000 • Latino males are most likely to die from motor vehicle accidents (MVA, 29%), followed by firearms (28%), other injury (19%) and non-injury (15%) • African American males are most likely to die from firearms (62%), followed by non-injury (27%), MVA (22%) and other injury (19%) • White males are most likely to die from MVA (21%), followed by other injury (20%), non-injury (17%), and firearms (12%) Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

  31. Figure 1.16: Causes of Death among Adolescent (ages 15-19) Females by Race/Ethnicity, 2000

  32. Figure 1.16: Causes of Death among Adolescent (ages 15-19) Females by Race/Ethnicity, 2000 • Latina females are most likely to die from motor vehicle accidents (MVA, 11%), followed by non-injury (10%), other injury (5%), and firearms (3%) • African American females are most likely to die from non-injury (21%), followed by MVA (10%), other injury (7%) and firearms (6%) • White females are most likely to die from MVA (21%), followed by non-injury (12%), other injury (6%), and firearms (2%) Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2003

  33. Chapter 2: Immigration

  34. Figure 2.1: Latino Population by Generation, 1999 Source: Jamieson, Curry and Martinez, 2001

  35. Figure 2.1: Latino Population by Generation, 1999 For all Latinos: • 39% are immigrants • 28% are US-born offspring of an immigrant parent • 32% are US-born children of US-born parents For Latino students: • 18% are immigrants • 48% are US-born offspring of an immigrant parent • 34% are US-born children of US-born parents Source: Jamieson, Curry and Martinez, 2001

  36. Figure 2.2: Latino Population by National Origin, 2000

  37. Figure 2.2: Latino Population by National Origin, 2000 Most Latinos living in the US are of Mexican origin: • 66% are Mexican • 15% are Central and South American • 9% are Puerto Rican • 6% are Other • 4% are Cuban Source: Therrien & Ramirez, 2001

  38. Figure 2.3: Mean Family Income of Latino Students (grades 7-12) by Generation, 1988 Source: Kao,1999

  39. Figure 2.3: Mean Family Income of Latino Students (grades 7-12) by Generation, 1988 The household income of Latino students increases slightly with each generation, never approaching that of white students: • $22 thousand among 1st generation Latinos • $28 thousand among 2nd generation Latinos • $29 thousand among 3rd generation Latinos • $46 thousand among 3rd generation whites Source: Kao,1999

  40. Figure 2.4: Poverty Rates of Latino Students (grades 7-12) by Generation and Region of Origin, 1988 Source: Kao,1999

  41. Figure 2.4: Poverty Rates of Latino Students (grades 7-12) by Generation and Region of Origin, 1988 Mexican-origin students are most likely to be poor. When 1st and 2nd generation students are compared to 3rd generation students: • 42% vs. 34% of Mexicans are poor • 27% vs. 24% of Central Americans are poor • 24% vs. 28% of Caribbeans are poor • 14% vs. 15% of South Americans are poor Source: Kao,1999

  42. Figure 2.5: Changes in Language among Youth (ages 5-17) by Generation, 1990 Source: Hernandez and Charney, 1998

  43. Figure 2.5: Changes in Language among Youth (ages 5-17) by Generation, 1990 When youth who live in a linguistically isolated household are compared to youth who speak English very well: • 44% vs. 55% are 1st generation • 31% vs. 29% are 2nd generation • 9% vs. 0% are 3rd generation Source: Hernandez and Charney, 1998

  44. Figure 2.6: Percentage of 16-24 Year Olds in School/High School Graduates, 2000 Source: Kaufman, Alt & Chapman, 2001

  45. Figure 2.6: Percentage of 16-24 Year Olds in School/High School Graduates, 2000 Latinos of all generations are less likely to be high school graduates: • 56% of 1st generation Latinos • 85% of 2nd generation Latinos • 84% of 3rd generation Latinos • 87% of African Americans • 93% of whites Source: Kaufman, Alt & Chapman, 2001

  46. Figure 2.7: Percentage of 8th Graders Who Dropped Out of High School, 1994 Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

  47. Figure 2.7: Percentage of 8th Graders Who Dropped Out of High School, 1994 • The proportion of Latino students who ever drop out of high school is stable across generations at 28% • 14% of 1st, 12% of 2nd, and 9% of 3rd generation Latinos from the class of 1992 did not graduate by 1994 Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

  48. Figure 2.8: School Characteristics by Latino Generational Status, 1988 Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

  49. Figure 2.8a: School Characteristics by Latino Generational Status, 1988 Among 1st generation Latinos: • 53% are in urban schools • 78% are in schools with >50% ethnic minorities • 62% are in schools with >40% poor Among 2nd generation Latinos: • 45% are in urban schools • 73% are in schools with >50% ethnic minorities • 53% are in schools with >40% poor Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998

  50. Figure 2.8b: School Characteristics by Latino Generational Status, 1988 Among 3rd generation Latinos: • 36% are in urban schools • 54% are in schools with mostly ethnic minorities • 37% are in schools where >40% of students are poor Source: Kaufman, Chavez & Lauen, 1998