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Kingdom: Animals

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    1. 2007-2008

    2. Animal Characteristics Heterotrophs must ingest others for nutrients Multicellular complex bodies No cell walls allows active movement Sexual reproduction no alternation of generations no haploid gametophyte

    3. Animal Evolution

    4. Body Cavity Space for organ system development increase digestive & reproductive systems increase food capacity & digestion increase gamete production Coelem mesoderm & endoderm interact during development allows complex structures to develop in digestive system ex. stomach

    5. Invertebrate: Porifera Sponges no distinct tissues or organs do have specialized cells (amoebocytes and choanocytes) no symmetry sessile (as adults)

    6. Invertebrate: Porifera Sponges Diffusion is the method used for circulation, gas exchange and excretion of wastes Reproduction Asexual – Fragmentation Sexual – Hermaphrodites: release egg and sperm; produce flagellated, swimming larvae

    7. Jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral tissues, but no organs two cell layers predators tentacles surround gut opening extracellular digestion release enzymes into gastrovascular cavity absorption by cells of gastrodermis Invertebrate: Cnidaria

    8. Cnidocytes of Cnidarians

    9. Invertebrate: Cnidaria Nerve Net: not centralized, can respond equally on all sides Use diffusion for circulation, gas exchange and excretion of wastes Reproduction Asexual – Budding (polyp) Sexual – External fertilization/development (medusa)

    10. Invertebrate: Platyhelminthes Flatworms tapeworm, planaria mostly parasitic bilaterally symmetrical cephalization = concentration of nervouse system in anterior end concentration of sense organs in head Eye spots Lateral flaps(smell) increase specialization in body plan

    11. Invertebrate: Platyhelminthes Gastrovascular Cavity – one opening for mouth and anus Use diffusion for transport and gas exchange Protonephridia Network to excrete ammonia Flame bulbs Nephrostomes Locomotion Cilia used to move along mucus Muscles used to undulate (swim)

    12. Invertebrate: Nematoda Roundworms bilaterally symmetrical many are parasitic Hookworm Nerve ring Exhibits cephalization Longitudinal muscles = thrashing motion

    13. Invertebrate: Nematoda Complete digestive system tube running through length of body (mouth, esophagus, midgut, rectum, anus) Midgut secretes enzymes and absorbs nutrients Material circulate body in fluid of pseudocoelom Gas exchange occurs by diffusion Wastes collected by simple structures leading to excretory pores in body wall Nitrogenous waste usually ammonia, but sometimes urea Reproduction = sexual Internal fertilization/external development Zygote = resistant cell – can survive harsh environment Rigid cuticle shed periodically

    14. Invertebrate: Mollusca slugs, snails, clams, squid soft bodies, mostly protected by hard shells General body plan: Muscular foot (movement) Visceral mass (contains internal organs) Mantle (fold of tissue over visceral mass creating mantle cavity) Nerve ring & nerve cords – exhibit cephalization Locomotion via muscular foot, or jet propulsion

    15. Invertebrate: Mollusca Differentiated digestive tract Radula: belt of curved teeth for scraping up food Open circulatory System: 3-chambered heart pumps hemolymph Gas exchange via gills in mantle cavity Use countercurrent exchange Nitrogenous waste removed by metanephridia Nephridiopore discharge into mantle cavity Reproduction: most gonochoristic (separate sexes) Many snails hermaphroditic Ciliated larvae = trochophore

    16. Invertebrate: Annelida Segmented worms earthworms, leeches segments increase mobility redundancy in body sections Setae (Bristles) = traction for burrowing Longitudinal + Circular muscles = peristaltic or slinky type movement

    17. Invertebrate: Annelida Complete Digestive tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestine, anus) Closed cirulatory system Separted body fluids (blood and interstitial) hemoglobin as repiratory pigment Moist skin = respiratory surface (gas exchange)

    18. Invertebrate: Annelida Excretory system = metanephridia in each segment Nephrostome Nephridiopore Waste usually ammonia Reproduction Some asexual – regeneration Sexual – hermaphrodites that cross fertilize

    19. Invertebrate: Arthropoda Spiders, insects, crustaceans most successful animal phylum (most abundant on Earth) segmented specialized segments (head, thorax, abdomen) allows jointed appendages specialized for swimming, walking or flying exoskeleton chitin + protein Molting – shed exoskeleton periodically

    20. Invertebrate: Arthropoda Extensive cephalization Well developed sense organs (eyes, olfactory, antennae) Complete digestive tract (foregut, midgut, hindgut) Excretory System Malpighian tubules Waste = uric acid (terrestrial) Waste = ammonia/urea (aquatic)

    21. Invertebrate: Arthropoda Open circulatory system (hearts and body movement circulate hemolymph) Gas exchange: Gills (aquatic) Book lungs (terrestrial) Tracheal system (terrestrial) Spiracles Tracheae Reproduction – Sexual Internal fertilization/external development Metamorphosis

    22. Arthropod groups

    23. Invertebrate: Echinodermata Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber Bilateral larvae; radially symmetrical as adults spiny endoskeleton Nerve Ring with radial nerves Short Digestive tract Gills for gas exchange Excretion: Coelomocytes Phagocytize wastes and Carry to discharge sites

    24. Invertebrate: Echinodermata Circulation Water Vascular system: madreporites take in water from environment; water flows through tubes terminating in tube feet (used for locomotion) Hemal System: fluid moves through tubes due to peristalsis and cilia Reproduction Asexual – Regeneration Sexual – external fertilization and development

    25. Invertebrate quick check… Which group includes snails, clams, and squid? Which group is the sponges? Which are the flatworms? …segmented worms? …roundworms? Which group has jointed appendages & an exoskeleton? Which two groups have radial symmetry? What is the adaptive advantage of bilateral symmetry? Which group has no symmetry? Which group includes snails, clams, and squid? Mollusks Which group is the sponges? Porifera Which are the flatworms? Platyhelminthes …segmented worms? Annelids …roundworms? Nematodes Which group has jointed appendages & an exoskeleton? Arthropods Which two groups have radial symmetry? Cnidaria, Echinoderm What is the adaptive advantage of bilateral symmetry? cephalization Which group has no symmetry? Profiera Which group includes snails, clams, and squid? Mollusks Which group is the sponges? Porifera Which are the flatworms? Platyhelminthes …segmented worms? Annelids …roundworms? Nematodes Which group has jointed appendages & an exoskeleton? Arthropods Which two groups have radial symmetry? Cnidaria, Echinoderm What is the adaptive advantage of bilateral symmetry? cephalization Which group has no symmetry? Profiera

    26. Fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals Four features common to all chordates Notochord Dorsal hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits Postanal tail Complete digestive tract Closed Circulatory System Vertebrate - Chordata

    27. High Degree of cephalization and centralization Limbs modified for swimming, walking, flying Gas Exhchange Gills (aquatic) Lungs (terrestrial) Nitrogenous Wastes Uric Acid/Urea (Terrestrial) Ammonia (Aquatic) Sexual reproduction Internal and external fertilization Internal and external development Chordata

    28. 2007-2008