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Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom Animalia

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Kingdom Animalia

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  1. Multicellular Heterotrophs Lack cell walls Embryology Blastula stage Kingdom Animalia

  2. Simple, cellular level of organization to complex Invertebrates to vertebrates Most animals (>95%) are inverts Aside from very successful insects, most animals are marine Diverse morphologies, habitats, and adaptations Animal diversity

  3. Sponges Habitat Mostly marine, few freshwater sessile Body plan = asymmetry Suspension filter feeders Cellular level (lacks true tissues and organs) Phylum Porifera

  4. Cells with specific functions • Porocytes: water canal • Pinacocytes: flat protective cells • Choanocytes: “collar cells” capture food (plankton) • Amebocytes: transport food; differentiate into other cells • Spicules: siliceous or calcareous skeletal structures

  5. Diverse types & habitats Tropical to temperate encrusting Subtropical bath sponges Deep water glass sponge Reproduction Asexual budding Sexual broadcast spawn

  6. Jellyfish, sea anemones, coral Nearly all marine Radial symmetry Two forms: medusa (swimming) and polyp Tissue level Reproduction Sexual and budding Stinging cells cnidocytes Phylum Cnidaria (nigh-dare-ia)

  7. Tissue layer: 2 layers • Epidermis and gastrodermis • Mesoglea is middle jelly layer rather than a true tissue

  8. Individual polyps or colonies of specialized polyps Feeding, reproductive, defense Sessile colonies Drifting colonies Class Hydrozoa

  9. Dominant medusae stage Examples Sea Nettle Moon Jelly Upside-down Jelly Close relative Class Cubozoa Tropical Potent toxins Class Scyphozoa

  10. Solitary or colonial polyps w/out medusae stage Sea anemones Some with zooxanthellae symbionts Photosynthesizing protists Corals CaCO3 skeletons Environmentally valuable reefs Extremely susceptible to negative impacts Pollution, increased temp., etc Class Anthozoa

  11. Comb jellies All marine Swim with 8 rows of ciliary combs or ctenes Use tentacles with colloblasts to capture prey Adhesive, non-stinging cells Phylum Ctenophora

  12. Flatworms Bilateral symmetry Organ level Cerebral ganglia Simple brain Reproduction: hermaphrodites Asexual and Sexual Many parasitic Phylum Platyhelminthes

  13. Incomplete gut Three tissue layers

  14. Opisthorchis sinensis, Chinese liver fluke

  15. Opisthorchis lifecycle

  16. Cestoda

  17. Similar to this mammal tapeworm example, are the marine parasitic tapeworms, “…as dense as seaweed forests, that live in the guts of sharks.”

  18. Cestoda scolexes

  19. Cestode proglottid 2 Testes Ovary Yolk gland

  20. Ribbon worms Circulatory system Complete gut Eversible proboscis Phylum Nemertea

  21. Roundworms All environments Marine sediments (feed on bacteria) Parasitic to most marine animals Complete gut Reproduction Always sexual One of the biggest marine parasites measures 13 meters and is two centimeters in diameter …found in the placenta of the sperm whale. Phylum Nematoda

  22. Phylum Mollusca • Very diverse • Will discuss in more detail…

  23. Segmented worms Earthworms Leeches Polychaetes Repetitive body parts Hydrostatic skeleton Flexibility and strength Longitudinal & circular muscles Coelomates Closed circulatory system Excretory organs Marine, moist land, and some freshwater Bilateral symmetry Some parasitic Phylum Annelida

  24. Class Polychaeta Adaptations to predatory lifestyle Eyes, tentacles, jaws, etc Coelom Protective gut cavity Parapodia w/setae Respiratory, nervous, and locomotion Nereis