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Principles of Computer Architecture Miles Murdocca and Vincent Heuring Chapter 5: Languages and the Machine. Chapter Contents. 5.1 The Compilation Process 5.2 The Assembly Process 5.3 Linking and Loading 5.4 Macros

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Chapter contents
Principles of Computer ArchitectureMiles Murdocca and Vincent HeuringChapter 5: Languages and the Machine


Chapter contents
Chapter Contents

5.1 The Compilation Process

5.2 The Assembly Process

5.3 Linking and Loading

5.4 Macros

5.5 Case Study: Extensions to the Instruction Set – The Intel MMX™ and Motorola AltiVec™ SIMD Instructions


The compilation process
The Compilation Process

• Compilation translates a program written in a high level language into a functionally equivalent program in assembly language.

• Consider a simple high-level language assignment statement:

A = B + 4;

• Steps involved in compiling this statement into assemby code:

— Reducing the program text to the basic symbols of the language (for example, into identifiers such as A and B), denotations such as the constant value 4, and program delimiters such as = and +. This portion of compilation is referred to as lexical analysis.

— Parsing symbols to recognize the underlying program structure. For the statement above, the parser must recognize the form:

Identifier “=” Expression, where Expression is further parsed into the form:

Identifier “+” Constant.Parsing is sometimes called syntactic analysis.


The compilation process1
The Compilation Process

— Name analysis: associating the names A and B with particular program variables, and further associating them with particular memory locations where the variables are located at run time.

— Type analysis: determining the types of all data items. In the example above, variables A and B and constant 4 would be recognized as being of type int in some languages. Name and type analysis are sometimes referred to together as semantic analysis: determining the underlying meaning of program components.

— Action mapping and code generation: associating program statements with their appropriate assembly language sequence. In the statement above, the assembly language sequence might be as follows:

ld [B], %r0, %r1 ! Get variable B into a register.

add %r1, 4, %r2 ! Compute the value of the expression

st %r2, %r0, [A] ! Make the assignment.


The assembly process
The Assembly Process

• The process of translating an assembly language program into a machine language program is referred to as the assembly process.

• Production assemblers generally provide this support:

— Allow programmer to specify locations of data and code.

— Provide assembly-language mnemonics for all machine instructions and addressing modes, and translate valid assembly language statements into the equivalent machine language.

— Permit symbolic labels to represent addresses and constants.

— Provide a means for the programmer to specify the starting address of the program, if there is one; and provide a degree of assemble-time arithmetic.

— Include a mechanism that allows variables to be defined in one assembly language program and used in another, separately assembled program.

— Support macro expansion.


Assembly example
Assembly Example

• We explore how the assembly process proceeds by “hand assembling” a simple ARC assembly language program.


Instruc tion for mats and psr format for the arc
Instruc-tionFor-mats and PSR Format for the ARC


Assembled code
Assembled Code

ld [x], %r1 1100 0010 0000 0000 0010 1000 0001 0100

ld [y], %r2 1100 0100 0000 0000 0010 1000 0001 1000

addcc %r1,%r2,%r3 1000 0110 1000 0000 0100 0000 0000 0010

st %r3, [z] 1100 0110 0010 0000 0010 1000 0001 1100

jmpl %r15+4, %r0 1000 0001 1100 0011 1110 0000 0000 0100

15 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1111

9 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1001

0 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000


Forward referencing
Forward Referencing

• An example of forward referencing:



Linking using global and extern
Linking: Using .global and .extern

• A .global is used in the module where a symbol is defined and a .extern is used in every other module that refers to it.


Linking and loading symbol tables
Linking and Loading: Symbol Tables

• Symbol tables for the previous example:



Macro definition
Macro Definition

• A macro definition for push:



Intel mmx multimedia extensions
Intel MMX (MultiMedia eXtensions)

• Vector addition of eight bytes by the Intel PADDB mm0, mm1 instruction:


Intel and motorola vector registers
Intel and Motorola Vector Registers

• Intel “aliases” the floating point registers as MMX registers. This means that the Pentium’s 8 64-bit floating-point registers do double-duty as MMX registers.

• Motorola implements 32 128-bit vector registers as a new set, separate and distinct from the floating-point registers.





Addressing modes
Addressing Modes

• Four ways of computing the address of a value in memory: (1) a constant value known at assembly time, (2) the contents of a register, (3) the sum of two registers, (4) the sum of a register and a constant. The table gives names to these and other addressing modes.


Subroutine linkage registers
Subroutine Linkage – Registers

• Subroutine linkage with registers passes parameters in registers.


Subroutine linkage data link area
Subroutine Linkage – Data Link Area

• Subroutine linkage with a data link area passes parameters in a separate area in memory. The address of the memory area is passed in a register (%r5 here).


Subroutine linkage stack
Subroutine Linkage – Stack

• Subroutine linkage with a stack passes parameters on a stack.


Stack linkage example
Stack Linkage Example

• A C program illustrates nested function calls.


Stack linkage example cont
StackLinkageExample (cont’)

• (a-f) Stack behavior during execution of the program shown in previous slide.


Stack linkage example cont1
Stack Linkage Example (cont’)

• (g-k) Stack behavior during execution of the C program shown previously.


Chapter contents

Input and Output for the ISA

• Memory map for the ARC, showing memory mapped I/O.


Touchscreen i o device
Touchscreen I/O Device

• A user selecting an object on a touchscreen:


Flowchart for i o device
Flowchart for I/O Device

• Flowchart illustrating the control structure of a program that tracks a touchscreen.






Byte code for java program
Byte Code for Java Program

• Disassembled byte code for previous Java program.

Location Code Mnemonic Meaning

0x00e3 0x10 bipush Push next byte onto stack

0x00e4 0x0f 15 Argument to bipush

0x00e5 0x3c istore_1 Pop stack to local variable 1

0x00e6 0x10 bipush Push next byte onto stack

0x00e7 0x09 9 Argument to bipush

0x00e8 0x3d istore_2 Pop stack to local variable 2

0x00e9 0x03 iconst_0 Push 0 onto stack

0x00ea 0x3e istore_3 Pop stack to local variable 3

0x00eb 0x1b iload_1 Push local variable 1 onto stack

0x00ec 0x1c iload_2 Push local variable 2 onto stack

0x00ed 0x60 iadd Add top two stack elements

0x00ee 0x3e istore_3 Pop stack to local variable 3

0x00ef 0xb1 return Return