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At a Glance: Paragraphs

At a Glance: Paragraphs

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At a Glance: Paragraphs

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  1. At a Glance: Paragraphs

  2. Chapter 1 The Paragraph and Prewriting

  3. Kinds of Paragraphs • Introductory: gives the necessary background and indicates the main idea, called the thesis. • Developmental: a unit of several sentences, it expands on an idea. • Transitional: directs the reader from one point in the essay to another. • Concluding: usually the last paragraph in an essay, it makes the final comment on the topic.

  4. Developmental Paragraph • A group of sentences, each with the function of stating or supporting a controlling idea called the topic sentence

  5. Three Parts of the Developmental Paragraph • The subject • The topic sentence • The support

  6. The Topic Sentence • An effective topic sentence has both a subject and a focus. The subject is what you intend to write about. The focus is what you intend to do with your subject. • Example:Wilson High School subject offers a well-balanced academic program. focus

  7. Support • Evidence or reasoning that explains the topic sentence • Can be developed according to several patterns: Description, Narration, Exemplification, Analysis by Division, Process Analysis, Cause and Effect, Comparison and Contrast, Definition, Argument

  8. Two Most Common Designs of Paragraphs (A) • Topic sentence • Support (B) • Topic sentence • Support • Concluding sentence

  9. The Writing Process • Using prewriting techniques to explore a topic • Limiting and then developing the topic, usually with an outline • Writing a first draft • Revising the draft as often as necessary • Editing the material

  10. Prewriting • Prewriting includes activities you do before writing your first draft or whenever you need new ideas. • These strategies help you get started and develop your ideas. • Prewriting strategies: freewriting, brainstorming, clustering, defining a topic, and outlining

  11. Freewriting • Write without stopping, letting your ideas tumble forth. • Helps you break emotional barriers, generate topics, and discover and explore ideas.

  12. Brainstorming • Generating key words and phrases related to the topic • Begin by asking Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How? questions about your subject or by merely listing ideas concerning your subject.

  13. Clustering • Also called mapping • Start by double-bubbling your topic. Then ask “What comes to mind?” and single-bubble other ideas on spokes radiating out from the double bubble.

  14. The Topic Sentence • An effective topic sentence has both a subject and a focus. The subject is what you intend to write about. The focus is what you intend to do with your subject. • Example:Wilson High School subject offers a well-balanced academic program. focus

  15. Outlining • Pattern for showing the relationship of ideas • Two main outline forms: • Sentence outline • Topic outline • Indentation, number and letter sequences, punctuation, and word placement indicate relationships • Major support indicated by Roman numerals • Minor support: supporting material that develops the major support

  16. Topic sentence I. Major support A. Minor support B. Minor support 1. Details or examples 2. Details or examples II. Major support A. Minor support B. Minor support

  17. Chapter 2 Writing, Revising, and Editing the Paragraph

  18. Writing Your First Draft • First (or rough) draft = your initial writing • As you write, pay close attention to your outline • But do not get caught up in correcting and polishing your writing during this stage • Writing process is recursive (“going back and forth”)

  19. Revising Your Writing • Revising focuses on organization, content, and language effectiveness • Editing involves final correction of mistakes in spelling, punctuation, and capitalization • The main points of revision are contained in the acronym CLUESS.

  20. CLUESS Coherence: Does the material flow smoothly, with each idea leading logically to the next? Language: Are the words appropriate for the message, occasion, and audience? Unity: Are all ideas related to and subordinate to the topic sentence? Emphasis: Have you used techniques such as repetition and placement of ideas to emphasize your main point(s)? Support: Have you presented material to back up, justify, or prove your topic sentence? Sentences: Have you used some variety of structure and avoided fragments, comma splices, and run-ons?

  21. Editing:Examine your work carefully. Look for problems in Capitalization, Omissions, Punctuation, and Spelling. (COPS)

  22. Using the Writing Process Worksheet Explore your topic, organize your ideas, and write your paragraphs using the Writing Process Worksheet as your guide. Photocopy the blank form in the book or print it from the Student Companion site.

  23. Chapter 3 From Reading to Writing

  24. Reading-Based Writing • Has a writing component and a reading component • Originates as a response to something you have read • Indicates, to some degree, content from that piece • Demonstrates a knowledge of the piece of writing

  25. Reading Techniques • Underlining • Annotating • Outlining • Taking Notes

  26. Underline… • The main idea in paragraphs • The support for those main ideas • The answers to questions that you bring to the reading assignment • Only the key words

  27. Annotating • Writing notes in the margins • Related to underlining • Usually appears with underlining to signal your understanding and extend your involvement in your reading • Represents intense involvement because it turns a reader into a writer

  28. Your response in the margin may • Echo the author’s ideas • Question the author’s ideas critically • Relate the author’s ideas to something else • Add to the author’s ideas

  29. Outlining • After reading, underlining, and annotating the piece, the next step could be outlining • Outline shows relationships of ideas (sequence, relative importance, and interdependence)

  30. Taking Notes • Involves underlining and annotating passages and jotting down useful points in your outline • When writing a summary, reaction, or two-part response, you can use your notes instead of referring back to the reading(s)

  31. Reading-Based Writing Forms • Summary – restate main ideas in your own words • Reaction – comment critically on what you read • Two-part response – includes both a summary and a reaction

  32. To Write an Effective Summary • Cite the author and title of the text • Reduce the length of the original by 2/3 • Concentrate on main ideas, not details • Change original wording, not ideas • Do not evaluate the content or give opinions • Do not add ideas • Do not include personal comments (don’t refer to yourself) • Seldom use quotations • Use author tags to remind the reader you are summarizing the work of another author: “says York,” “according to York,” “the author explains.”

  33. Writing a Reaction • A type of reading-based writing in which you incorporate your views • Includes personal experience and other information to explain, validate, or challenge the ideas in the reading selection

  34. A Two-Part Response • A clear, concise summary followed by a reaction response • Useful for critical examination of a text, or for problem-solving assignments • Helps you avoid the common problem of writing only a summary of the text when your instructor wants you to both summarize and evaluate

  35. Kinds of Support for Reading-Based Writing • Explanations • References • Quotations

  36. Supporting Ideas with Quotations and References • Quotations are borrowed words, and you must give credit to the original writer • References point the reader directly toward the reading selection, including the page number • You must indicate the sources of all original ideas you have borrowed, even when you have changed the words

  37. Plagiarism • Borrowing words or ideas without giving credit to the originators • Avoiding plagiarism requires careful documentation of sources

  38. Basic Formal Documentation • Identify the source if you use material from a source you have read • Document any borrowed original idea, whether it is • Quoted • Paraphrased (written in your words but not shorter) • Summarized (written in your words and shorter)

  39. Basic MLA Documentation in Reading-Based Writing • Normally, give only the author’s name and a page number: (Rivera, 45) • If you state the author’s name in introducing the quotation or idea, then give only the page number: (45). • Work Cited: MLA Blaylock, Richard. “More Than the Classroom.” Paragraphs and Essays with Integrated Readings. 10th ed. Ed. Lee Brandon and Kelly Brandon. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008. 199-208. Print.

  40. Chapter 4 Paragraphs and Essays

  41. The Paragraph • A paragraph is a group of sentences, each with the function of stating or supporting a single controlling idea that is contained in the topic sentence.

  42. Parts of a Paragraph • Topic sentence (subject and focus) • Support (evidence and reasoning) • Concluding sentence at the end

  43. The Essay Defined • The essay is a group of paragraphs, each of which supports a controlling idea called a thesis.

  44. Main Parts of the Essay • Introduction: carries the thesis, which states the controlling idea—much like the topic sentence for a paragraph but on a larger scale • Development: evidence and reasoning—the support • Conclusion: an appropriate ending—often a restatement of or a reflection on the thesis

  45. Purposes of the Introductory Paragraph • Introduces the subject through the thesis or controlling idea • Gains the reader’s interest • Moves the reader into the middle paragraphs

  46. Middle Paragraphs • Form the body of an essay • Provide information and reasoning that justify the thesis presented in the essay’s introductory paragraph

  47. Concluding Paragraph • 3-6 sentences long • End on a note of finality

  48. Chapter 5 Narration: Moving Through Time

  49. Narrative • an account of an incident or a series of incidents that make up a complete and significant action

  50. 5 Properties of Narratives • Situation • Conflict • Struggle • Outcome • Meaning