opposing policy propositions n.
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Opposing Policy Propositions. Refutation. Refuting means proving a person or statement to be wrong . In other words, refutation is an attempt to prove that the opposing claims, the evidence, and the reasoning are false. . Strategizing refutation.

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  • Refuting means proving a person or statement to be wrong.
  • In other words, refutation is an attempt to prove that the opposing claims, the evidence, and the reasoning are false.
strategizing refutation
Strategizing refutation
  • Although for each advanced claim there can be a counter claim, there rarely is a need to actually counter all claims of the opponent.
  • In most real arguments there is not enough time to poke at every aspect of the opponent’s argument.
how to find the weakest point understanding the argument
How to find the weakest point? Understanding the argument
  • Finding the main claim, the thesis
  • Finding the reasons supporting the thesis; main points
  • Identifying the reasoning
  • Identifying supporting evidence.
refute the reason for change challenge the problem
Refute the Reason for ChangeChallenge the Problem
  • The problem is not severe
  • The problem is stable or declining
  • The problem is narrow (the scope)
  • The problem is of little importance for the audience
challenge the accuracy of causes the origins of the problem
Challenge the accuracy of causesThe origins of the problem
  • What is the cause of the problem?
  • Is this the real cause of the problem?
  • Is the cause structural or attitudinal?
refute the solutions
Refute the Solutions
  • Identify Barriers
  • Dispute Workability
  • Present Disadvantages
identify barriers
Identify Barriers
  • Policy is not available

E.g., technology is not available

  • Policy is not acceptable

E.g., policy will not pass constitutional scrutiny

dispute workability
Dispute Workability
  • The policy is not affordable
  • Show costs / benefits analysis
  • The policy is difficult to implement
  • The policy cannot be enforced
present disadvantages
Present Disadvantages
  • The policy has unintended effect
  • It makes things worse
  • It creates more problems
offer a counterproposal
Offer a Counterproposal
  • Only after you exhausted all other means of refutation
question criteria standards used for any value propositions claims
Question criteria / standards used for any value propositions / claims

Show that criteria / standards are:

  • Not clear / vague / ambiguous
  • Difficult to apply / difficult to measure in practical situations
  • Not acceptable for the audience (be careful here: this challenge is a claim of value in itself)
question propositions of fact refute evidence
Question propositions of fact Refute evidence
  • Inaccurate / False / Insufficient
  • Incomplete
  • Inconsistent
  • Not recent enough
  • Sources Biased
  • Sources Unreliable
challenge reasoning identify logical fallacies
Challenge ReasoningIdentify logical fallacies
  • Hasty Generalization
  • Forcing a Dichotomy (false dilemma)
  • Ad Hominem
  • Appeal to Authority / Tradition / People
  • Circular reasoning
  • Confirmation Bias