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Nervous System Outline. Health Occupations. Nervous System Functions. Directs the functions of all human body systems 100 Billion Nerve cells Carry messages from brain to rest of body. Neurons . The basic element of nervous system Highly specialized Vary in function, shape, and size

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nervous system outline

Nervous System Outline

Health Occupations

nervous system functions
Nervous System Functions
  • Directs the functions of all human body systems
    • 100 Billion Nerve cells
  • Carry messages from brain to rest of body
  • The basic element of nervous system
  • Highly specialized
  • Vary in function, shape, and size
  • Separated by synapses
    • Gaps in between each neuron
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Stimulates impulse to jump to next nerve
  • 3 Parts
    • Cell Body
      • Have fibers to reach out to send or

receive impulses

    • Dendrites
      • Thin branching extensions of cell body
      • Conduct nerve impulses to cell body
    • Axon
      • Conducts nerve impulses away from cell body
      • Covered by a myelin sheath
        • Fatty tissue that makes impulse travel faster
      • End of axon has fibers that let the impulse leave the nerve
  • 2 Basic Properties
    • Excitability
      • Ability to respond to a stimulus
    • Conductivity
      • Ability to transmit a signal
  • 3 Types
    • Efferent (motor)
      • Carry information to muscles and glands from CNS
    • Afferent (sensory)
      • Carry information from sensory system to CNS
    • Interneurons
      • Carry and process sensory information
Neuron bundles = Nerves
  • Stimulus Receptor Impulse

Nerve Receptor

  • Support, connect, protect, and remove debris
  • Do not transmit impulses
  • Form blood-brain barrier
    • Permits some chemical substances to reach the brain’s neurons but blocks most others
central nervous system cns
Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Consists of:
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
  • Center of Control
cns functions
CNS Functions
  • Receives and interprets all stimuli
  • Sends nerve impulses to instruct muscles and glands to take over or respond to certain actions
  • Causes Voluntary and Involuntary actions
brain divisions
Brain Divisions
  • Brainstem
  • Cerebellum
  • Cerebrum
  • Diencephalon
brain stem
Brain Stem
  • Midbrain
    • Visual reflexes
  • Pons
    • Controls certain respiratory functions
  • Medulla Oblongata
    • Regulates heart & lung functions
    • Swallowing
    • Vomiting
    • Coughing
    • sneezing
  • Coordinates musculoskeletal movement
    • Maintains balance
    • Posture
    • Muscle tone
  • 2 hemispheres
    • Left and Right
  • Cerebral Cortex
    • Conscious decision making
  • Four Lobes
    • Frontal
      • Moral Behavior, voluntary motor movements
    • Parietal
      • Controls and interprets senses and taste
    • Temporal
      • Memory, equilibrium, emotion, hearing
    • Occipital
      • vision
  • Deep portion of brain
  • Contains:
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
  • Relay center for sensations
  • Controls:
    • Heart rate
    • Blood pressure
    • Temperature regulation
    • Water and electrolyte balance
    • Digestive functions
    • Glandular activities
cerebrospinal fluid csf
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Fills the area between the brain and cranium
  • Watery fluid that contains various compound
  • Cradles and cushions brain
spinal cord
Extends from base of brain to first lumbar vertebrae in back

Protected by:

Cerebrospinal fluid

Vertebral column


3 layers of membranes that cover brain and spinal cord

Spinal Cord
  • Dura Mater (outer layer)
    • Tough, fibrous
    • Contains channels for blood to enter brain tissue
  • Arachnoid Mater (middle layer)
    • Web-like structure
  • Pia Mater (innermost layer)
    • Contains blood vessels that nourish spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System
  • 12 Cranial Nerves
    • Carry impulses to and from the brain
  • 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    • Carry messages to and from the spinal cord and the torso and extremities of the body
peripheral nervous system1
Peripheral Nervous System
  • 2 Subsystems according to function
    • Somatic Nervous System
    • Autonomic Nervous System
somatic nervous system
Somatic Nervous System
  • Receive and process sensory input from the skin, muscles, tendons, joints, eyes, tongue, nose and ears
  • Excite voluntary contraction of skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Carry impulses from the central nervous system to glands, various involuntary muscles, cardiac muscle, and membranes
  • Stimulates organs, glands and senses by stimulating secretions of substances
  • Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
autonomic nervous system1
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic
    • Operates when the body is under stress
    • Activates responses necessary to react in dangerous or abnormal situations
    • Fight or Flight response
  • Parasympathetic
    • Operates to keep the body in homeostasis under normal conditions