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Welcome to. Companion PowerPoint Presentation for the Introduction to Housing textbook. Housing and Community . Neighborhood. Neighborhood—geographic location People living in a specific area who share common ties & interact in some way

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Welcome to...

Companion PowerPoint Presentation for the Introduction to Housing textbook

  • Neighborhood—geographic location

People living in a specific area who share common ties & interact in some way

Statistical neighborhoods (census tracts or zip codes)

Functional neighborhoods

(residents’ perceptions)

  • Community—social interaction

Network of social interaction & bonding, usually based on mutual interest

Physical community development—physical planning & development

Social community development—enhancing residents’ capacities, skills & resources

  • Ecological approach
    • Interrelationships of people with

their environment

    • Social systems
  • Planning approach
    • Physical development, infrastructure, & land use
    • Services
theory of human ecology
Theory of Human Ecology
  • Robert Park
  • City of Chicago
  • Early 1900s
  • Ideas taken from plant ecology
    • Living together to the mutual

benefit of each

    • Invasion, dominance &


other theories
Other theories
  • Social contagion
  • Collective socialization
  • Neighborhood resource
  • Relative deprivation
process of physical community development
Process of Physical Community Development
  • Planning commission

Local residents

Recommend planning decisions

  • Comprehensive plan

Statement of community development policies & their implementation

5-20 years

Growth in population, industry & commerce

Land use

community tools
Community Tools
  • Zoning ordinances

Follow the comprehensive plan

Character of a neighborhood & property values

Guide for future development

        • Land use
        • Population density
        • Site requirements
        • Structural dimensions
zoning ordinances
Zoning Ordinances
  • A map showing boundaries of labeled zones
  • Section of specific definitions of zones
  • Articles describing (for each zone):
    • Permitted,
    • Conditional, or
    • Special permit uses
zoning ordinances1
Zoning Ordinances
  • Types of zones:
    • Residential:
      • Single family
      • Multi-family
      • Transitional
    • Commercial
    • Industrial
    • Agricultural
zoning ordinances2
Zoning Ordinances
  • Type of development
  • Placement of buildings
  • Type & number of units
  • Building height, setback, & easements
  • Lot density
zoning ordinances appeals
Zoning Ordinances: Appeals
  • Avoid hardships
  • Not self-created
  • Not alter the character of the neighborhood
  • Single case
  • Intent versus strict letter of the law
zoning ordinances appeals1
Zoning Ordinances: Appeals

Use variance

    • use of the property other than permitted
  • Area variance
    • Use, construction or alteration of a building

Board of Zoning Appeals

subdivision regulations
Subdivision Regulations
  • Development of land – new building
    • Streets
    • Streetscapes
    • Utilities
    • Lot sizes
    • Open space
  • Subdivision developer, neighborhood association, historic preservation association
  • Typically restricts use of property in order to maintain use and/or character
  • Attaches to the deed or association by-laws
  • Enforced by action of affected property owners
  • Conveys with the sale of the property
critics and compromises
Critics and Compromises
  • Planned Unit Developments (PUD)

Special type of ordinance to develop new land

Typically allows more flexibility than standard zoning & subdivision regulations

planned unit developments
Planned Unit Developments
  • Typical:
    • Large scale development
    • Clustered housing units
    • Common areas
    • Mixed housing types
    • Topographically suitable
    • Efficient use of the land
    • Integrated commercial/retail
eminent domain
Eminent Domain
  • Right of a community to take private property for public use
  • Property owner must be compensated
    • Property owner has right to sue if do not believe fairly compensated.
neighborhood satisfaction
Neighborhood Satisfaction
  • Influenced by:
  • Personal factors
  • Physical factors
  • Social factors
  • Neighborhood segregation
  • Safety factors
neighborhoods influence households
Neighborhoods Influence Households
  • Quality of local services
  • Socialization by adults
  • Peer influences
  • Social networks
  • Exposure to crime & violence
  • Physical distance & isolation
so what do people want in their neighborhood
So what do people want in their neighborhood?
  • An improvement over their last neighborhood
  • An adequate level of stimulation
  • A place to feel at “home”
  • Housing satisfaction
  • Neighborhood services
  • Good neighbors
  • Safety
  • Gentrification—new money invested in central city results in middle & upper class moving back into the city
  • Gated communities—small neighborhoods enclosed with a fence & restrictive entrance
  • Conservation communities—incorporate sustainable housing & neighborhood design
New urbanism—neighborhoods that have a well-defined edge & a focused center
  • Traditional neighborhood development—using grid pattern, parks, squares, roundabouts & alleyways to promote a more traditional neighborhood of the past